(A Gaiacomm International
Corporation Technology Document)
Judah Ben-Hur, Ph.D.
Founder, Chairman, CTO, and Chief Technology Officer
Table of Contents
|-What is Gaiacomm?
• Magnetic Booster
• Excitation by magneto spherical sources
• ELF and Band Designators
|-Journey to Understanding the
|-Pioneering Work of Nikola Tesla
|-The Navy’s ELF Communication
|-What makes Gaiacomm different?
|-An Antenna with Anomalous Radiation
|-Current Submarine Communications
|-Gaiacomm Executive Report
|-Desired HF Heater/Antenna Characteristics
|-Broad HF Frequency Range
|-Agility in Changing Heater/Antenna
|-HF Heater/Antenna Location
|-Estimated Costs of the two
HF Heating/Antenna Facilities
|-Gaiacomm Technology (Revisited)
• Potential Applications
• Ionosphere issues associated with High Power RF Heating
• Desired HF Heating/Antenna Facility
WHAT IS GAIACOMM?
Gaiacomm International Corporation was formed to seek out contracts with all
agencies and entities, private and public sector concerns, for the use of a
special venture of high technological significance, the “Global Wireless
Communications” Technology. This “GWC” technology primarily
deals with a global network of land-based communications system that will allow
the use of smart phones, PDA’s, Laptop PC’s, and virtually any other
wireless device on a global level. Frequency plays an important role for the
deployment of the signal. The antenna is also a key factor in the overall design.
In a nutshell, Gaiacomm
is a culmination of twenty years of devotion to a field of inquiry by the founder
Dr. Judah Ben-Hur. Dr. Ben-Hur has given his prime years of life working full-time
with all of his material and non-material resources to find a commercially viable
way to overcome all obstacles in perfecting and deploying a truly wireless system
of global telecommunication without dependency on satellites.
Gaiacomm has developed the set of designs, drawings, and network of all engineering
and environmental specifications to implement this technology. Gaiacomm standards
do not violate any regulations, environmental or otherwise, under any local,
State, Federal, or local-self government body.
The frequencies used and the methods of deployment are absolutely market friendly.
The rest of the presentation
in this document is based on a talk delivered by Dr. Judah Ben-Hur at a presentation
before the Board of Directors and Senior Management representatives from various
Internet Communications and Financial Corporations in Las Vegas, Nevada, November,
Listed in this document
are lab notes that are not necessarily in any specific order to explain Maxwell’s
understanding of the Aether and its relationship to Ionosphere principles, Magnetic
anomalies and the way to capture and construct equipment to transmit and receive
data signals at any rate known to science. Mathematical expressions have been
eliminated to allow the reader to interpret the words and draw pictures in his
mind to see what I, and so many others in the past have discovered but were
afraid to write about or do until now. I do not expect the reader to fully comprehend
this new science, but I ask the reader to aim at thinking outside the circle
and it will become easier to understand what I see.
by magnetospheric sources
In first order approximation, the ionosphere can be regarded as a low-pass filter
that divides the ULF/ELF frequency range into sources outside the ionosphere
and inside the Earth-ionosphere cavity. Geomagnetic pulsations or micro pulsations
occur in the ULF range resulting from an interaction of the solar wind with
the magnetosphere whereas ELF slow-tails result from lightning within the Earth-ionosphere
cavity. The earth’s ionosphere cavity resonance’s occur in the transitional
band between ULF and ELF frequencies where both sources are likely to contribute
to the wave phenomena observed at the surface of the Earth. The interference
of atmospheric and magnetospheric sources has been addressed but little experimental
evidence has been reported. However, geomagnetic activity is well known to vary
with intervals of the solar rotation period and the sunspot cycle. Therefore,
geomagnetic activity connected to the solar rotation period, expressed by means
of sunspot numbers, may temporarily dominate over atmospheric sources. This
is especially true during the sunspot cycle maximum.
• ELF and Band Designators
The acronym ELF,
which stands for Extremely Low Frequencies,
is one of a number of band designators defined by the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) to name bands or ranges of
the electromagnetic frequency spectrum. Some of the other designators, along
with services or applications, which use that frequency range, are given in
the following summary:
In some references
the entire frequency range between 3 Hz and 3 kHz is called ELF, with ULF applying
to all frequencies below 3 Hz.
UNDERSTANDING THE TECHNOLOGY:
The propagation of electromagnetic waves has some unusual properties in the
sense that the wavelength is comparable with the earth’s radius. Global
electromagnetic resonance may then appear when the frequency is equal to the
natural frequency of the resonator formed by the spherical cavity between
the earth and the ionosphere. The electrical conductivity of air is
very low at low altitudes. However, it increases rapidly with distance from
the earth’s surface and is found to be greater by a factor of several
million by the time altitudes of a few tens of kilometers are reached and when
reaching the beginning layer of the ionosphere. The lower atmosphere is a thin
dielectric bounded by good conductors. This defines a spherical wave-guide in
which radio waves belonging to different frequency bands can propagate. The
upper frequency limit of the wave-guide channel is determined by the depressive
properties of the ionosphere, which eventually becomes transparent as the frequency
is increased at a few megahertz.
There is no lower frequency limit or higher frequency limit. The earth
ionosphere wave-guide can support the propagation of radio waves of frequencies
as low or as high as desired, even down to DC current if needed. The
absence of a lower critical frequency can readily be understood by recalling
that the wave-guide has no lateral boundaries, so that a constant potential
difference may exist across the wave-guide. A DC potential difference of natural
origin does in fact exist. There is a charging and discharging of the spherical
capacitor formed by the earth and the ionosphere.
Earth’s Ionosphere Resonator
Boundaries of the
earth’s ionosphere resonator have a very simple configuration if understood.
The earth’s surface is uneven and its electrical parameters are functions
of position and are often not constant within the depth of the skin layer. The
ionosphere, on the other hand, is a magneto ionic multicomponent plasma that
is inhomogeneous both in the vertical and horizontal direction.
Electromagnetic waves of extremely low frequency can be excited in the earth
Ionosphere cavity by two types of natural sources, terrestrial and cosmic, and
now the third is by mechanical means.
of ELF and teraHertz signals was performed by a digital processor and
by analogue filtration systems. The process to isolate and record for both took
quite a bit of time. I accumulated long records. I will discuss the ELF portion
using digital processing: The synchronously reproduced signals were applied
to the two channels of the spectral analyzer. Filters were used in each channel
to isolate frequency components, which were received by the phase detector and
the multiplier. One of the channels was provided with a variable phase shifter.
The signal at the output of the phase detector is proportional to the phase
of the cross spectrum and controls the phase shifter so to reduce the phase
shift to zero. The position of the phase shifter rotor gives the phase of the
cross spectrum corresponding to the given spectral components. Signals with
equal phases are then received by the multiplier and integrated. The output
of the integrator is proportional to the modulus of the cross spectrum at the
same frequency. Scanning along the frequency axis was achieved by discrete switching
of the heterodyne oscillator. The power spectrum was recorded at the output
when the inputs were connected in parallel. All the same except in an analog
mode was used for the very high-end frequency in the teraHertz range.
ELF radio communications has a very low attenuation and the high signal stability
is achieved during the propagation in the earth’s Ionosphere wave-guide.
The large skin-layer depth means that radio communications can be established
with targets not merely on the earth’s surface but also at various depths
below the earth. The output power of the transmitter must be increased to maintain
radio communications at any depth, high or very low. The frequency dependence
of attenuation in the earth ionosphere wave-guide channel is known but will
not be disclosed in this paper. If known then one could choose the optimum wavelength
and the other parameters of the radio communications link.
of Nikola Tesla
Before I may continue explaining any further, I recommend the reader reference
patents of Nikola Tesla and Bernard Eastlund to further understand the hardware
equipment that will be used to transmit and receive radio signals at 1-29 hertz
and 1-29 teraHertz and the method of use. The patents of Tesla have been
modified, in principle, to current technology of today. If after reviewing all
the this data including the above written data, if the reader still does not
have a clear understanding then it is clear that the reader does not have the
ability to think outside the circle (remember, my condition at the outset?).
As long as you tend to remain inside the circle, you are bound to wonder, and
The above-mentioned equipment is what makes up the equipment needed to build
a global wireless communications system. First, I would read my White Paper,
titled “The Art of Global Wireless Communications” to introduce
you to the system as well as the purpose for which it will be used.
Refer Tesla patents: #645,576, System of transmission of electrical energy,
patented March 20, 1900. #649,621. Apparatus for transmission of electrical
energy, patented May 15, 1900, #1,119,732 Apparatus for transmission of electrical
energy, patented December 1, 1914.
Antennae would be
used to focus an intense beam of electromagnetic energy into the upper atmosphere
where it would collide with the ionosphere to create a phenomenon called the
"mirror force." Bernard Eastlund was granted a US Patent (# 4,686,605)
for this invention on August 11, 1987. In addition, it can be modified to become
a wireless communications device.
ELF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Seawater is a hindrance to communication
The ELF frequency
range is critically important to the Navy because of its value in providing
a way to communicate with submerged submarines. Because of the high electrical
conductivity of seawater, signals attenuate (or decrease) rapidly as they propagate
downward through the seawater. In effect, the seawater "hides" the
submarine from detection while simultaneously preventing it from communicating
with the outside world through normal radio transmissions.
Frequency is inversely proportional to depth below seawater
The degree to which a signal is attenuated depends on its frequency. However,
the lower the frequency, the deeper a signal can be received in seawater. In
order to receive conventional radio transmissions a submarine must travel at
slow speeds and be near the surface of the water. Both of these situations make
a submarine more susceptible to enemy detection. Frequencies in the ELF range
can be received considerably deeper, and broadcasts using this mode provide
a primary link between the nation's commander-in-chief and the submarine force.
One of the great difficulties associated with the use of ELF for communication
purposes, is the problem of generating a useful signal. The physical size of
an antenna, that can produce a useable signal with reasonable efficiency, is
inversely proportional to the frequency. For example, an antenna useful for
cellular telephone frequencies, need only be several inches long to be completely
effective. At ELF, on the other hand, a reasonably efficient antenna must be
quite large. This is an issue that Gaiacomm has overcome.
The ELF system, which became operational in 1989, uses two transmitting antennas,
one in Wisconsin and one in Michigan. The two sites must operate simultaneously
to meet worldwide coverage requirements. Each antenna looks like a power line,
mounted on wooden poles. The Wisconsin antenna consists of two lines, each about
14 miles long. The Michigan antenna uses three lines, two about 14 miles long
and one about 28 miles long. Each site has a transmitter building near the antenna.
The transmitter facility in Michigan uses about six acres of land and the one
in Wisconsin about two acres. The operating frequency is 76 Hz.
The construction required no relocation of people or buildings. The antenna
location in State and National forests avoided buildings, historic sites, villages,
and towns. Construction contractors coordinated extensively with the Michigan
Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Forest Service to avoid rare vegetation
and to repopulate the easement with local flora.
The National Academy of Sciences reviewed the ELF program in 1977 for possible
ecological effects. While it found none at that time, the study did recommend
that the Navy conduct an ecological monitoring program. As a result, in the
last 24 years, several universities, funded by the Navy, conducted independent
studies to look for ecological effects of ELF. The studies found no adverse
effects on animals, plants, or microorganisms at the ELF system test sites.
WHAT MAKES GAIACOMM’S SYSTEM DIFFERENT?
Gaiacomm’s system: 95 percent of the electrical energy
is manifested at the transmitters output as current waves with the balance directed
to the antenna structure, resulting in dissipating EM radiation.
The field amplitude varies inversely as the square root of the horizontal
Satellite communication is limited by four factors:
preventing the deployment of large, high gain antennas on the satellite platform.
2. Over-crowding of available bandwidths due to low antenna gains.
3. The high investment cost and insurance cost associated with significant probability
of failure (Iridium).
4. High atmospheric losses above 30 GHZ limit carrier frequencies.
Satellite Technology Is Very Costly
The cost of constructing
a satellite antenna is a strong function of its size. A rough rule of thumb
is that cost is proportional to the diameter cubed. Thus,
a doubling of the antenna size will result in the satellite cost increasing
eight times. The limitation in antenna size means that the satellite beam
is wide. In order to prevent electromagnetic interference with terrestrial stations,
the power radiated by the satellite is limited by international convention.
In any event, power is severely limited on a satellite platform, like Iridium.
In addition, because the radiated power is low, large receiving antennas are
required. These factors make satellite systems very extremely expensive.
The use of land based antennas for regional communication is possible if there
is sufficient demand for traffic. Gaiacomm will offer a direct to user ground
based wireless system without the high costs of satellite systems.
Improvements in satellite receiver technology have permitted smaller antennas
to be used as ground station receivers. However, antennas are reciprocal. They
have the same directional characteristics in transmit and receive. The use of
low gain, wide beam earth stations for direct to user systems has contributed
considerably to the bandwidth-overcrowding problem, particularly in the USA.
Gaiacomm’s Earth Station transmission system has overcome these above
mentioned satellite problems by offering a true real-time upload and download
system with no loss in data of any kind, while operating in a low frequency
range of between 1HZ to 29HZ as the base signal. This allows the complete signal
to be received and transmitted from 500 meters under ocean water to 15 miles
in airspace, such as highflying aircraft. There is no interference to any commercial
or military band or will there be any intrusion on any international convention.
The actual imbedded pulsed signal is in the tera-gigabit range, (ten to the
thirteenth). 1 teraHertz to 29 teraHertz
Membership of ITU
Gaiacomm is applying
for membership in the ITU, International Telecommunications Union, to begin
the process of defining a new communications operating spectrum. This means
all new equipment will be manufactured and deployed first for humanitarian relief
workers in the field, followed by the introduction of this system in the commercial
sector without the need to improve or incorporate technology into existing failing
communication systems worldwide.
Very Low Frequency communication transmitters use digital signals to communicate
with submerged submarines. (Just a note: GPS tracking and other forms of data
use will be incorporated into the wireless network for eventual subscribers).
AN ANTENNA WITH ANOMALOUS RADIATION PROPERTIES
to radiate electric and magnetic fields in quadrature time phase are found to
have anomalous radiation properties relative to the in-phase propagation properties
of the conventional dipole. It is shown that there is a marked advantage in
wave survival efficiency over the dipole, increasingly evident beyond a mile
range. This is attributed to the excitation of a natural wave propagation mode
by the new antenna, rather than the dipole's forced wave propagation and the
degeneration of the latter over the short range into a natural wave with some
CURRENT SUBMARINE COMMUNICATIONS and GAIACOMM TECHNOLOGY
via multiple, complementary RF systems, covering nearly all the military communications
frequencies. Because of these limitations, no one communications system or frequency
band can support all submarine communications requirements. For example,
UHF SATCOM provides a relatively high data rate but requires the submarine to
expose a detectable mast-mounted antenna, degrading its primary attribute —
stealth. Conversely, extremely low frequency (ELF) and VLF broadcast communications
provide submarines a high degree of stealth and flexibility in speed and depth,
but are low data rate, submarine-unique and shore-to-submarine only. Submarine
satellite communication data rates are limited by the lack of a large aperture
antenna. Current satellite resources, whether military or commercial, are limited
in the amount of effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) provided in the space-to-earth
segment. Large antenna gains are therefore required at the submarine, which
in turn requires large aperture antennas. To be interoperable,
submarines require antennas with performance comparable to the least-capable
TOMAHAWK-equipped surface ship. As a reference point, the least capable TOMAHAWK-equipped
surface ship uses a four-foot reflector antenna for operation.
Phased Arrays and Reflector Antennas
Two primary antenna
designs, which provide high gain and directivity, are phased arrays and reflectors.
Reflector antennas are commonly used on surface ship platforms, but they are
typically bulky and difficult to store in a small volume, and require mechanical
steering. Phased arrays are versatile, allowing electronic beam scanning, conformal
design flexibility, and modular construction to improve stow ability. Although
phased arrays have been expensive in the past, recent technological breakthroughs
have the potential to significantly reduce the design and manufacturing costs
of phased arrays and their components.
The Submarine Communications Exploratory Development Program is managed by the
Submarine Electromagnetic Systems Department (Code 34) of the NUWC, Naval Undersea
Warfare Center under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, Science, and
Technology Directorate (ONR-ST, Office of Naval Research, Science and Technology
Directorate Code 313). The Submarine Communications Program is organized into
two thrusts to support the requirements in the Post-Soviet era: 1) provide robust,
high data rate interoperable submarine communications in all operational areas
(Joint Interoperable High Data Rate Communications); and 2) improve downlink
communications at speed and depth (Communications at Speed and Depth).
The first thrust,
Joint Interoperable High Data Rate Communications, includes the research in
submarine communications architectures to permit the submarine to participate
in Navy and Joint force networks. It also provides a focus for the development
and improvement of submarine antennas, which are needed to support this participation
for the transfer of data at rates that exceed the capabilities of existing submarine
communications systems. This is an area of increased emphasis.
The second thrust, Communications at Speed and Depth, includes the research
needed to improve antennas and systems that permit the transfer of information
to submarines operating in their speed/depth envelope below periscope depths.
At a minimum, a one-way call-up system is needed. Research is also supported
to increase the data rate capability of low profile antennas used to reach the
surface from depth such as buoyant cable antennas. There are four projects within
the Submarine Communications Exploratory Development Program. These are:
• Low-Profile Submarine Communications Antenna,
• Open Architecture for Submarine Communications Networks,
• Submarine SHF Communications, and
• Submarine ELF Communications.
Two additional requirements are: a) communications interoperability with the
Joint Task Force, and b) covert receipt of continuous record traffic. These
requirements stem from current restrictions in timeliness and data throughput
of current communications available at speed and depth. Certain modes of operation
are currently not available, such as extended transmission capability to a Task
Force from a submarine at depth.
Gaiacomm will develop
an open systems approach to submarine phased array communications antenna systems
that will allow the collocation of additional electromagnetic capabilities such
as ESM, radar, electronic countermeasures (ECM), and millimeter wave imaging
within the same aperture. Gaiacomm will develop the technology needed to demonstrate
the feasibility of a hull-mounted ELF antenna with controllable beam pattern,
capable of surviving maximum submarine speeds and depths and capable of providing
reception down at several hundred feet at operational speeds.
The submarine communications system is an end-to-end system with connectivity
established between the submarine shipboard SCSS, Submarine Communications Support
System node and the submarine shore site communication facilities node. The
submarine shore communication facilities are located worldwide and consist of
ELF, VLF, LF, HF, and SSIXS, / OTCIXS Submarine Satellite Information Exchange
System, Officer in Tactical Command Information Exchange System shore sites.
In the future, submarine HDR Communications using EHF, SHF, and Commercial satellite
RF resources will become an integral part of the submarine shore C 4 I, Command,
Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence infrastructure. Using all
shore site assets, submarine command and control connectivity is assured. Submarine
shore site facilities have the capability to be transmitters, receivers, or
both depending on their function and use within the radio frequency spectrum.
The ELF communications system consists of two high power shore transmitter stations
controlled by a submarine BCA, Broadcast Control Authority. The two ELF transmitter
facilities are located at Clam Lake, Wisconsin and Republic, Michigan.
This unique communication system is designed to transmit short alerting messages
to submarines operating far below the ocean surface. The ELF frequencies used,
in the 40–80 Hz range, were selected for their long-range signal propagation
(i.e., global) and ability to penetrate seawater to depths several hundred feet
below the surface. In addition to the inherent covertness this communication
system provides, it also provides the submarine Commanding Officer with operational
flexibility to remain at required mission depth and speed. The ELF communication
system is used as a “bell ringer” to notify the submarine crew to
come shallow to copy a higher data rate broadcast. The Gaiacomm system
eliminates this requirement by allowing the submarine to remain submerged at
any required depth to remain stealth.
Alliance solidarity is a key to national defense strategy and, as would be expected,
drives a key interest in bilateral and multilateral submarine operations and
communications. As with the U.S., VLF/LF communications is the backbone of NATO
submarine command and control.
Gaiacomm will address all of these requirements with a communications system
that will satisfy the above-mentioned concerns and requests.
Submarines’ future missions will require a revolution in communications
connectivity and supporting bandwidth. The vision is to allow submarines to
communicate without the current restrictions of depth and speed and with sufficient
bandwidth to maximize the effectiveness of data and intelligence collected by
the submarine, such that real-time connectivity and reach-back is achieved.
Gaiacomm is the answer.
Executive Order 12472 of April 3, 1984 - Narration.
Section 1. The National Communications System.
(a) There is hereby established the National Communications System (NCS). The
NCS shall consist of the telecommunications assets of the entities represented
on the NCS Committee of Principals and an administrative structure consisting
of the Executive Agent, the NCS Committee of Principals, and the Manager. The
NCS Committee of Principals shall consist of representatives from those Federal
departments, agencies or entities, designated by the President, which lease
or own telecommunications facilities or services of significance to national
security or emergency preparedness, and, to the extent permitted by law, other
Executive entities which bear policy, regulatory or enforcement responsibilities
of importance to national security or emergency preparedness telecommunications
(b) The mission of the NCS shall be to assist the President, the National Security
Council, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the
Director of the Office of Management and Budget in:
(1) The exercise of the telecommunications functions and responsibilities set
forth in Section 2 of this Order; and
(2) The coordination of the planning for and provision of national security
and emergency preparedness communications for the Federal government under all
circumstances, including crisis or emergency, attack, recovery and reconstitution.
(c) The NCS shall seek to ensure that a national telecommunications infrastructure
is developed which:
(1) Is responsive to the national security and emergency preparedness needs
of the President and the Federal departments, agencies and other entities, including
telecommunications in support of national security leadership and continuity
(2) Is capable of satisfying priority telecommunications requirements under
all circumstances through use of commercial, government and privately owned
(3) Incorporates the necessary combination of hardness, redundancy, mobility,
connectivity, interoperability, restorability and security to obtain, to the
maximum extent practicable, the survivability of national security and emergency
preparedness telecommunications in all circumstances, including conditions of
crisis or emergency; and
(4) Is consistent, to the maximum extent practicable, with other national telecommunications
Section 2. The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall
provide information, advice, guidance and assistance, as appropriate, to the
President and to those Federal departments and agencies with responsibilities
for the provision, management, or allocation of telecommunications resources,
during those crises or emergencies in which the exercise of the President's
war power functions is not required or permitted by law.
GAIACOMM EXECUTIVE REPORT
• An exciting and challenging aspect of Ionosphere enhancement is its
potential to control Ionosphere processes in such a way as to greatly improve
the performance of 4G and C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers
and Intelligence communication systems. A key goal of the program is the identification,
investigation of those Ionosphere processes, and phenomena that can be exploited
for DOD and Commercial purposes, such as those outlined below.
• Generation of ELF waves in the 1-29 Hz band to provide communications
to deeply submerged submarines and for the commercial 4G wireless networks.
• Geophysical probing to identify and characterize natural Ionosphere
processes that limit the performance of 4G global wireless systems and C 4 I
(Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence), so that techniques
can be developed to mitigate or control them. Generation of Ionosphere lenses
to focus large amounts of HF energy at high altitudes in the ionosphere, thus
providing a means for triggering Ionosphere processes that could potentially
be exploited for DOD and commercial communications purposes.
• Electron acceleration for the generation of IR and other optical emissions,
and to create additional ionization in selected regions of the ionosphere that
could be used to control radio wave - propagation properties.
• This system will attempt to comply with all international conventions
that govern environmental procedures. Through experiments using ELF and VLF
modulation techniques, unexpected effects occurred on the biosphere. It was
found that plant life and other microorganisms responded favorably to the modulation
techniques applied in isolated experiments. Animal life did not seem to suffer
any adverse effects. In the experiment it was found that plant life responded
with an increase in the metabolic process of growth. By understanding the modulation
techniques applied, it will be possible to enhance all biological entities metabolic
rates to some degree. More tests will have to be documented in parallel with
the construction of the prototype in order to fully validate the biological
and environmental effects.
(Generation of geomagnetic-field aligned ionization to control the reflection/scattering
properties of radio waves will result in a number of outcomes. It will jam unwanted
signals, make data stealth, and focus RF signals to localized areas to selectively
ignite the surrounding atmosphere, which will create a flash burn effect. This
effect will incinerate all air and ground living and non-living entities. In
short, a military weapon of unprecedented proportions with no nuclear radiation
generated aftereffects. This device can use the surrounding atmospheric layers
to burn off everything in its path without firing a single shot. Localizing
atmospheric area techniques to selected targeted areas can also be accomplished
with this heating process. In short, using the Compton effect to alter the air
to ground electric charge. This is even more effective than EMP during a nuclear
• Oblique heating
to produce effects on radio wave propagation at great distances from a HF heater,
thus is broadening the potential military applications of Ionosphere enhancement
technology and commercial 4G wireless communications.
• Generation of ionization layers below 90 km to provide, radio wave reflectors
(mirrors), which can be exploited for long range, over-the-horizon, HF/VHF/UHF
surveillance purposes, including the detection of cruise missiles and other
low observable in addition the allowance of global broadband access on a wireless
network by worldwide consumers, i.e. voice, data, video, email, and all unmentioned
forms of data exchange.
A new, unique, HF heating/antenna facility is required to address the broad
range of issues identified above. However, in order to have a useful facility
at various stages of its development, it is important that the heater/antenna
be constructed in a modular manner, such that its effective-radiated-power can
be increased in an efficient, cost effective manner as resources become available.
Effective-Radiated-Powers (ERP) in Excess of one Gigawatt
One gigawatt of effective-radiated-power represents an important threshold power
level, over which significant wave generation and electron acceleration efficiencies
can be achieved, and other significant heating effects can be expected. The
power will come from natural gas reserves in the earths crust generated by a
generation process supplied by an independent developer of that technology.
Broad HF Frequency Range
The desired heater/antenna would have a frequency range from around one tetra-gigaHertz
to about 30 teraHertz, thereby allowing a wide range of Ionsopheric processes
to be investigated.
A heater/antenna that has rapid scanning capabilities is very desirable to enlarge
the size of heated regions in the ionosphere Continuous Wave (CW) and Pulse
Modes of Operation. Flexibility in choosing heating modes of operation will
allow a wider variety of Ionospheric enhancement techniques and issues to be
The facility should permit both X and O polarization in order to study Ionospheric
processes over a range of altitudes.
Agility in Changing Heater/Antenna Parameters
The ability to quickly change the heater/antenna parameters is important for
addressing such issues as enlarging the size of the heated region the ionosphere
and the development of techniques to insure that the energy densities desired
in the ionosphere can be delivered without self-limiting effects setting-in.
HF Heating/Antenna Diagnostics
In order to understand natural Ionospheric processes as well as those induced
through active modification of the ionosphere, adequate instrumentation is required
to measure a wide range of Ionospheric parameters on the appropriate-temporal
and spatial scales. A key diagnostic these measurements will be an incoherent
scatter radar facility to provide the means to monitor such background plasma
conditions as electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, and electric
fields, all as a function of altitude. The incoherent scatter radar facility,
will have to be built with a tower and support equipment in two locations to
allow transmit and receive end results.
For ELF generation experiments, the diagnostics complement would include two
ELF receivers, a digital HF ionosonde, a magnetometer, photometers, a VLF sounder,
and a VHF Rio meter. In other experiments, in site measurements of the heated
region in the ionosphere, via rocket-borne instrumentation, would also be very
desirable. Other diagnostics to be employed, depending on the nature of the
Ionospheric modifications being implemented, will include HF receivers, HF/VHF
radars, optical imagers, and scintillation observations designed by Gaiacomm
HF Heater/Antenna Location
One of the major issues to be addressed under the project is the generation
of ELF waves in the ionosphere by HF heating. This requires locating the heater/antenna
where there are strong Ionospheric currents, either at an equatorial location
or a high latitude (auroral) location. Additional factors to be considered in
locating the heater/antenna include other technical (research) needs and requirements,
environmental issues, future expansion capabilities (real estate), infrastructure,
and considerations of the availability and location of diagnostics. The location
of the new HF heating/antenna facility is planned for Australia.
In addition, it is desirable that the HF heater/antenna be located to permit
rocket probe instrumentation to be flown into the heated region of the ionosphere.
The exact location in Australia for the proposed new HF heating/antenna facility
has not yet been determined.
Estimated Cost of the two New HF Heating/Antenna Facilities
It is estimated that six to nine million dollars ($6-9 M) will provide a new
facility with an effective-radiated-power and with considerable improvements
in the ability to tune frequencies and antenna-beam steering capability. The
facility will be of modular design to permit efficient and cost-effective upgrades
in power as additional funds become available. The desired (world-class) facility,
having the broad capabilities and flexibility described above, will cost about
twenty-five to thirty million dollars ($25-30M).
The Navy and the Air Force should jointly assist managing the project. However,
because of the wide variety of issues to be addressed, active participation
of the government agencies, universities, and private contractors is envisioned.
The Gaiacomm 4G technology is especially attractive in that it will insure that
research in an emerging, revolutionary, technological area will be focused towards
identifying and exploiting techniques to greatly enhance global wireless communications
and C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence capabilities.
The heart of the program will be the development of a unique Ionospheric heating
capability to conduct the pioneering experiments required to adequately assess
the potential for exploiting Ionospheric enhancement technology for the DOD
(Dept. of Defense) and the commercial wireless communications infrastructure.
As outlined below, such a research facility will provide the means for investigating
the creation, maintenance, and control of a large number and wide variety of
Ionospheric processes that, if exploited, could provide significant operational
capabilities and advantages over conventional commercial 3G wireless and C 4
I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence systems. The
research to be conducted in the program will include basic, exploratory, and
DOD agencies already have on-going efforts in the broad area of active Ionospheric
experiments, including Ionospheric enhancements. These include both space- and
ground-based approaches. The space-based efforts include chemical releases (e.g.,
the Air Force's Brazilian Ionospheric Modification Experiment, BIME; the Navy's
RED AIR program; and multi-agency participation in the Combined Release and
Radiation Effects Satellite, CRRES). In addition, other planned programs will
employ particle beams and accelerators aboard rockets (e.g., EXCEDE and CHARGE
IV), and shuttle- or satellite-borne RF transmitters (e.g., WISP and ACTIVE).
Ground-based techniques employ the use of high power, radio frequency (RF) transmitters
(so-called "heaters") to provide the energy in the ionosphere that
causes it to be altered or enhanced. The use of such heaters/antennas has a
number of advantages over space-based approaches.
These include the possibility of repeating experiments under controlled conditions,
and the capability of conducting a wide variety of experiments using the same
facility. For example, depending on the RF frequency and effective radiated
power (ERP) used, different regions of the atmosphere and the ionosphere can
be affected to produce a number of practical effects.
Because of the nature of current wireless communications technology limitations
and lack of forward thinking, this project is focused on developing a global
wireless communications system deploying ground-based, high power RF heating
antennas to allow the DOD and the commercial wireless infrastructure to enjoy
the benefits of a full broadband wireless communications system at transmit
and receive rates that exceed, by a factor of 3, the current megabit rates thus
To date, most DOD Ionospheric heating experiments have been conducted to gain
better understanding of Ionospheric processes, i.e., they have been used as
geophysical-probes. In this, one perturbs the ionosphere, and then studies how
it responds to the disturbance and how it ultimately recovers back to ambient
conditions. The use of Ionospheric enhancement to simulate Ionospheric processes
and phenomena are a more recent development, made possible by the increasing
knowledge being obtained on how they evolve naturally. By simulating natural
Ionospheric effects, it is possible to assess how they may affect the performance
of DOD and commercial wireless systems. From a DOD point of view, however, the
most exciting and challenging aspect of Ionospheric enhancement is its potential
to control Ionospheric processes in such a way as to greatly enhance the performance
of C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence systems
(or to deny accessibility to an adversary). This is a revolutionary concept
in that, rather than accepting the limitations imposed on operational systems
by the natural ionosphere, it envisions seizing control of the propagation medium
and shaping it to insure that a desired system capability can be achieved. A
key ingredient of the Gaiacomm project is the identifying and investigating
those Ionospheric processes and phenomena that can be exploited for such purposes.
2. Potential Applications
A brief description of a variety of potential applications of Ionospheric-enhancement
technology that could be addressed is outlined below.
2.1. Geophysical Probing
The use of Ionospheric heating to investigate natural Ionospheric processes
is a traditional one. Such-research is still required in order to develop models
of the ionosphere that can be used to reliably predict the performance of C
4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence systems and
4G wirelesses, under both normal and disturbed Ionospheric conditions. This
aspect of Ionospheric enhancement research is always available to the investigator;
in effect, as a by-product of any Ionospheric enhancement research, even if
it is driven by specific system applications goals, such as mentioned below.
2.2. Generation of ELF/VLF Waves
A number of critical DOD communications systems rely on the use of ELF/VLF (30
Hz-30 kHz) radio waves. These include those associated with the Minimum Essential
Emergency Communications Network (MEECN) and those used to disseminate messages
to submerged submarines. In the latter, frequencies in the 70-150 Hz range are
especially attractive, but difficult to generate efficiently with ground-based
antenna systems. The potential exists for generating lower frequency waves by
ground-based heating of the ionosphere. The heater/antenna is used to modulate
the conductivity of the lower ionosphere, which in turn modulates Ionospheric
currents. This modulated current, in effect, produces a virtual antenna in the
ionosphere for the radiation of radio waves. The technique has already been
used to generate ELF/VLF signals at a number of vertical HF heating facilities
in the West and the Soviet Union. To date, however, these efforts have been
confined to essentially basic research studies, and few attempts have been made
to investigate ways to increase the efficiency of such ELF/VLF generation to
make it attractive for communications applications. In this regard, heater generated
ELF would be attractive if it could provide significantly stronger signals than
those available from the Navy's existing antenna systems in Wisconsin and Michigan.
Recent theoretical research suggests that this may be possible, provided the
appropriate HF heating/antenna facility was available. Because this area of
research appears especially promising, and because of existing DOD, requirements
for ELF and VLF and the current 3G systems behind schedule, it is a primary
driver of the Gaiacomm communications system technology.
In addition to its potential application to long range, survivability, and DOD
communications, there is another potentially attractive application of strong
ELF/VLF waves generated in the ionosphere by ground-based antennas. It is known
that ELF/VLF signals generated by lightning propagates through the ionosphere
and interact with charged particles trapped along geomagnetic field lines, causing
them, from time to time, to precipitate into the lower ionosphere. If such processes
could be reliably controlled, it would be possible to develop techniques to
deplete selected regions of the radiation belts of particles, for short periods,
thus allowing satellites to operate within them without harm to their electronic
components. Any of the critical issues associated with this concept of radiation-belt
control could be investigated as part of the Gaiacomm project.
2.3. Generation of Ionospheric Holes/Lens
It is well known that HF heating produces local depletions ("holes")
of electrons, thus altering the refractive properties of the ionosphere. This
in turn affects the propagation of radio waves passing through that region.
If techniques could be developed to exploit this phenomenon in such a way as
to create an artificial lens, it should be possible to use the lens as a focus
to deliver much larger amounts of HF energy to higher altitudes in the ionosphere
than is presently possible. This would open the door for triggering new Ionsopheric
processes and phenomena that potentially could be exploited for DOD and commercial
4G communication purposes. In fact, the general issue of developing techniques
to insure that large energy densities can be made available at selected regions
in the ionosphere from ground-based heaters, is an important issue that must
be addressed in the Gaiacomm project.
2.4. Electron Acceleration
If sufficient energy densities are available in the ionosphere it should be
possible to accelerate electrons to high energies, ranging from a few eV to
even KeV and MeV levels. Such a capability would provide the means for a number
of interesting applications.
Electrons in the ionosphere accelerated to a few eV would generate a variety
of IR and optical emissions. Observation and quantification of them would provide
data on the concentration of minor constituents in the lower ionosphere and
upper atmosphere, which cannot be obtained using conventional probing techniques.
Such data would be important for the development of reliable models of the lower
ionosphere, which are ultimately used in developing radio-wave propagation prediction
techniques. In addition, heater generated IR/optical emission, over selected
areas of the earth could potentially be used to blind space-based military sensors.
Electrons accelerated to energy levels in the 14-20 eV range would produce new
ionization in the ionosphere, via collisions with neutral particles. This suggests
that it may be possible to "condition" the ionosphere so that it would
support HF propagation during periods when the natural ionosphere was especially
weak. This could potentially be exploited for long-range (OTH) HF communication/surveillance
purposes. Finally, the use of an HF heater to accelerate electrons to KeV or
MeV energy levels could be used, in conjunction with satellite sensor measurements,
for controlled investigations of the effects of high-energy electrons on space
platforms. There is already indication that high power transmitters on spacecraft
accelerate electrons in space to such high energy levels, and that those charged
particles can affect the spade- craft with harmful effects. The processes, which
trigger such phenomena and the development of techniques to avoid or mitigate
them, will be investigated as part of the Gaiacomm project.
2.5. Generation of Field Aligned Ionization
HF heating of the ionosphere produces patches of ionization that are aligned
with the geomagnetic field, thus producing scattering centers for RF waves.
Natural processes also produce such scattering, as evidenced by the scintillations
observed on satellite-to-ground links in the equatorial and high latitude regions.
The use of a HF heater/antenna to generate such scattering would provide a controlled
way to investigate the natural physical processes that produce them, and could
lead conceivably to the development of techniques to predict their natural occurrence,
their structure and persistence, and (ultimately) the degree to which they would
affect C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence and
4G communications systems.
One interesting potential application of heater induced field-aligned ionization
is ducted HF Propagation. It is known that there are high altitude ducts in
the E- and F-regions of the ionosphere (110-250 km altitude range) that can
support global HF Propagation. Normally, geometrical considerations show that
it is not possible to gain access to these ducts from ground-based HF transmitters,
from time-to time; however, natural gradients in the ionosphere (often associated
with the day-night terminator) provide a means for scattering such HF signals
into the elevated ducts. If access to such ducts can be done reliably, very
long-range HF communications and surveillance applications can be developed.
For example, survivable HF propagation above nuclear disturbed Ionospheric regions
would be possible; or, the very long-range detection of missiles breaking through
the ionosphere on their way to targets could be achieved. Gaiacomm will provide
the means for an HF heater/antenna to produce field-aligned ionization in a
controlled (reliable) way. The experiment calls for a heater/antenna in Australia
to generate field-aligned ionization that will scatter HF signals from a nearby
transmitter into elevated ducts. A satellite receiver will record the signals
to provide data on the efficiency of the field-aligned ionization as RF scatterers,
as well as the location, persistence, and HF propagation properties associated
with the elevated ducts.
2.6. Oblique HF Heating
Most RF heating experiments being conducted in the West and in the Soviet Union
employ vertically propagating HF waves. As such, the region of the ionosphere
that is affected is directly above the heater. For broader military applications
and 4G communications, the potential for significantly altering regions of the
ionosphere at relatively great distances (1000 km and more) from a heater/antenna
is very desirable. This involves the concept of oblique heating. The subject
takes an added importance in that higher and higher effective radiated powers
are being projected for future HF communication and surveillance systems. The
potential for those systems to inadvertently modify the ionosphere, thereby
producing self-limiting effects, is a real one that should be investigated.
In addition, the vulnerability of HF systems to unwanted effects produced by
other high power transmitters (friend or foe) should be addressed.
2.7. Generation of Ionization Layers below 90 Km
The use of very high power RF heaters/antennas to accelerate electrons to 14-20
eV opens the way for the creation of substantial layers of ionization at altitudes
where normally there are very few electrons. This concept has already been the
subject of investigations by the Air Force (Geophysics Lab), the Navy (MU),
and DARPA. The Air Force in particular, has carried the concept, termed Artificial
Ionospheric Mirror (AIM), to the point of demonstrating its technical viability
and proposing a new initiative to conduct proof-of-concepts experiments.
3. Ionospheric issues associated with High Power RF Heating
As the HF power delivered to the ionosphere is continuously increased the dissipative
process dominating the response of the geophysical environment changes discontinuously,
producing a variety of Ionospheric effects that require investigation.
3.1. Thresholds of Ionospheric Effects
At very modest HF powers, two RF waves propagating through a common volume of
ionosphere will experience cross-modulation, a superposition of the amplitude
modulation of one RF wave upon another. At HF effective radiated powers available
to Gaiacomm researchers, measurable bulk electron and ion gas heating is achieved,
electromagnetic radiation (at frequencies other than transmitted) is stimulated,
and various parametric instabilities are excited in the plasma. These include
those that structure the plasma so that it scatters RF energy of a wide range
of wave lengths.
There is also evidence that Gaiacomm researchers have discovered that at peak
power operation parametric instabilities begin to saturate, and at the same
time modest amounts of energy begin to go into electron acceleration, resulting
in modest levels of electron-impact excited airglow. This suggests that at the
highest HF powers available, the instabilities commonly studied are approaching
their maximum RF energy dissipative capability, beyond which the plasma processes
will "runaway" until the next limiting process is reached. The airglow
enhancements strongly suggest that this next process then involves wave-particle
interactions and electron acceleration. Gaiacomm has controlled and overcome
this finding by operating at a higher power than even the Soviets.
The Soviets, operating at high power, now have claimed significant stimulated
ionization by electron-impact ionization. The claim is that HF energy, via wave-particle
interaction, accelerates Ionospheric electrons to energies well in excess of
20 electron volts (eV) so that they will ionize neutral atmospheric particles
with which they collide. Gaiacomm researchers have developed a way to operate
at a high power even greater than the Soviet HF facilities at comparable mid-latitudes.
Gaiacomm researchers discovered a new "wave-particle" regime of phenomena,
it is believed that the Soviets have crossed that threshold and are exploring
a regime of study of which Gaiacomm researches have already accomplished ahead
of the Soviet research teams.
The only other facility that can generate high power is the Max Planck HF facility
at Tromso, Norway, possessing power comparable to that of the Soviet high power
heaters/antennas. Gaiacomm researchers now know how to make the auroral latitude
ionosphere sustain the conditions required to allow the particle acceleration
process to dominate conditions that are achieved in the (more stable) mid- latitude
What is clear, is that at the gigawatt and above effective radiated power energy
density deposited in limited regions of the ionosphere can drastically alter
its thermal, refractive, scattering, and emission character over a very wide
electromagnetic (radio frequency) and optical spectrum. Gaiacomm has the knowledge
of how to select desired effects and suppress undesired ones. Gaiacomm understands,
this can only be done by: identifying and understanding what basic processes
are involved, and how they interplay, This was done by driven strong experiments
steered by tight coupling to the interactive cycle of developing theory-model-experimental
3.2. General Ionospheric Issues
When a high-power HF radio wave reflects in the ionosphere, a variety of instability
processes are triggered. At early times (less than 200 ms) following HF turn-on,
micro instabilities driven by ponderomotive forces are excited over a large
(1-10 km) altitude interval extending downwards from the point of HF reflection
to the region of the upper hybrid resonance. However, at very early times (less
than 50 ms) and at late times (greater than l0 s) the strongest HF-induced Langmuir
turbulence appears to occur near HF reflection. The Langmuir turbulence also
gives rise to a population of accelerates electrons. Over time scales of hundreds
of milliseconds and longer, the micro instabilities must coexist with other
instabilities that are either triggered or directly driven by the HF-induced
turbulence. Some of these instabilities are believed to be explosive in character.
The dissipation of the Langmuir turbulence is thought to give rise to meter-scale
irregularities through several different instability routes. Finally, over time
scales of tens of seconds and longer, several thermally driven instabilities
can be excited which give rise to kilometer-scale Ionospheric irregularities.
Some of these irregularities are aligned with the geomagnetic field, while others
are either aligned along the axis of the HF beam or parallel to the horizontal.
Recently, Ionospheric diagnostics of HF modification have evolved to the point
where individual instability processes can be examined in detail. Because of
improved diagnostic capabilities, it is now clear that the wave-plasma interactions,
once thought to be rather simple, are in fact rather complex. For example, the
latest experimental findings at Arecibo Observatory suggest that plasma processes
responsible for the excitation of Langmuir turbulence in the ionosphere are
fundamentally different from past treatments based on so-called "weak turbulence
This theoretical approach relies on random phase approximations to treat the
amplification of linear plasma waves by parametric instabilities. Research in
HF Ionospheric modification during the period 1970-1996 commonly focused on
parametric instabilities to explain observational results. In contrast, there
is in increasing evidence that the conventional picture is wrong and that the
Ionospheric plasma undergoes a highly nonlinear development, culminating in
the formation of localized states of strong plasma turbulence. The highly localized
state (often referred to as cavitons) consists of high-frequency plasma waves
trapped in self- consistent electron density depletions.
It is important to realize that a much different instability is simultaneously
excited in the plasma and that one instability process can greatly influence
the development of another. Gaiacomm researchers have studied other research
studies of competition between similar types of instability processes and the
interaction between dissimilar wave-plasma interactions. It is clear that the
degree to which one instability is excited in the plasma may severely impact
a variety of other HF-induced processes through HF-induced pump wave absorption,
changes in particle distribution functions, and the disruption op other coherently-driven
processes relying on smooth Ionospheric electron density gradients. Because
the efficiency of many instability processes is dependent on geomagnetic dip
angle, the nature of instability competition in the plasma is expected to change
with geomagnetic latitude. Indeed, observational results strongly support this
notion. Consequently, it may be very difficult to extrapolate the observational
results obtained from one geomagnetic latitude to another. Moreover, even at
one Gaiacomm experimental station, a physical phenomenon excited by a high-power
HF wave is strongly dependent upon background Ionospheric conditions. A classic
illustration of this point may be found in Arecibo observations made when local
electron energy dissipation rates are low. In this case, the Ionospheric plasma
literally overheats due to the absence of effective electron thermal loss processes.
The large (factor of four) enhancement in electron temperature that accompanies
this phenomenon gives rise to a class of instability processes that are completely
different from others observed under "normal" conditions where the
Ionospheric thermal balance is not greatly disrupted. At ERPs greater than a
gigawatt (greater than 90 dBW), ponderomotive forces are no longer small compared
to thermal forces. This may qualitatively change the nature of the instability
processes in the ionosphere. Experimental research in this area, however, must
wait until such powerful Ionospheric heaters/antennas are developed at Gaiacomm.
3.3. High Latitude Ionospheric Issues
Radio wave heating of the ionosphere at mid-latitudes (e.g., Arecibo and Platteville)
has occurred under conditions where the background ionosphere (prior to turning
on the heater) was fairly laminar, stable, fixed, etc. However, at high latitudes
(i.e., auroral latitudes such as HIPAS and Tromso) the background ionosphere
is a dynamic entity. Even the location of the aurora and the electro jet are
changing as a function of latitude, altitude, and local time. Moreover, the
background E- and F-region ionosphere may not be laminar on scale sizes less
than 20 km and less than 100 km, respectively. There is the possibility of E-
and F- region irregularities (with scale sizes from cms to kms) occurring at
various times due to (for example) electro jet driven instabilities in the E-region,
and spread F or current driven instabilities in the F-region. High-energy particles,
e.g., from solar flares, may also lead to D-region structuring. In addition,
connection to the magnetosphere via the high conductivity along magnetic field
lines can play an important role. The theoretical understanding of high latitude
Ionospheric-heating processes has been improving; however, given the dynamic
nature of the high latitude ionosphere, it is important to diagnose the background
ionosphere before the inception of any heating experiments. This diagnostic
capability aids in determining long-term statistics, as well as real-time parameters.
Such diagnostics have been an integral part of the heating experiments at Arecibo
and Tromso, HF heating experiments conducted by Gaiacomm researchers has demonstrated
an understanding of the above-mentioned anomalies
4. Desired HF Heating/Antenna facility
In order to address the broad range of issues discussed in the previous sections,
a new, unique, HF heating/antenna facility is required.
4.1. Heater Characteristics
The goals for the HF heater/antenna are very ambitious. In order to have a useful
facility at various stages of its development, it is important that the heater/antenna
be constructed in a modular manner, such that its effective- radiated-power
can be increased in an efficient, cost effective manner as resources become
available. Other desired HF heater characteristics are outlined below.
One gigawatt of effective-radiated-power (90 dBW) represents an important threshold
power level, over which significant wave generation and electron acceleration
efficiencies can he achieved, and other significant heating effects can be expected.
To date, the Soviet Union has built such a powerful HF heater/antenna. Gaiacomm
plans to ultimately have a HF heater with an ERP well above one gigawatt (on
the order of 95-100 dBW and more) In short, the most powerful facility in the
world for conducting Ionospheric modification research and development. In achieving
this, the heated area in the F-region should have a minimum diameter of at least
50 km, for diagnostic-measurement purposes.
4.1.2. Frequency Range of Operation
The desired heater/antenna would have a frequency range from around one teraHertz
to about 29 teraHertz, thereby allowing a wide range of Ionospheric processes
to be investigated. This incorporates the electron-gyro frequency and would
permit operations under all anticipated Ionospheric conditions. Multi-frequency
operation using different portions of the antenna array is also a desirable
feature. Finally, frequency changing on an order of milliseconds is desirable
over the bandwidth of the HF transmitting antenna.
4.1.3. Scanning Capabilities
A heater/antenna that has scanning capabilities is very desirable in order to
enlarge the size of heated regions in the ionosphere. Although a scanning range
from vertical to very oblique (about 10 degrees above the horizon) would be
desirable, engineering considerations will most likely narrow the scanning range
to about 45 degrees from the vertical. The capability of rapidly scanning (microseconds
time scale) in any direction is also very desirable.
4.1.4. Modes of Operation
Flexibility in choosing heating modes of operation, including continuous- wave
(CW) and pulsed modes, will allow a wider variety of Ionospheric modification
techniques and issues to be addressed.
4.1.5. Wave polarization
The heater should permit both X and O polarizations to be transmitted, in order
to study Ionospheric processes over a range of altitudes.
4.1.6. Agility in Changing Heater/Antenna Parameters
The ability to quickly change heater/antenna parameters, such as operating frequency,
scan angle and direction, power levels, and modulation is important for addressing
such issues as enlarging the size of the modified region in the ionosphere and
the development of techniques to insure that the energy densities desired in
the ionosphere can be delivered from the heater without self-limiting effects
4.2. Heating Diagnostics
In order to understand natural Ionospheric processes as well as those induced
through active modification of the ionosphere, adequate instrumentation is required
to measure a wide range of Ionospheric parameters on the appropriate temporal
and spatial scales.
4.2.1. Incoherent Scatter Radar Facility
A key diagnostic for these measurements will be an incoherent scatter radar
facility to provide the means to monitor such background plasma conditions as
electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, and electric fields (all
as a function of altitude). In addition, the incoherent scatter radar will provide
the means for closely examining the generation of plasma turbulence and the
acceleration of electrons to high energies in the ionosphere by HF heating.
Gaiacomm desires the incoherent scatter radar facility, envisioned to complement
the planned new HF heater/antenna.
4.2.2. Other Diagnostics
The capability of conducting in site measurements of the heated region in the
ionosphere, via rocket-borne instrumentation, is also very desirable. Other
diagnostics to be employed, depending on the specific nature of the HF heating
experiments, may include HF receivers for the detection of stimulated electromagnetic
emissions from heater induced turbulence in the ionosphere; HF/VHF radars, to
determine the amplitudes of short-scale (1-10 m) geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities;
optical imagers, to determine the flux and energy spectrum of accelerated electrons
and to provide a three-dimensional view of artificially produced airglow in
the upper atmosphere: and, scintillation observations, to be used in assessing
the impact of HF heating on satellite downlinks and in diagnosing large- scale
4.2.3. Additional Diagnostics for ELF Generation Experiments
These could include a chain of ELF receivers to record signal strengths at various
distances from the heater; a digital HF ionosonde, to determine background electron
density profiles in the E- and F-regions; a magnetometer chain, to observe changes
in the earth's magnetic field in order to determine large volume Ionospheric
currents and electric fields; photometers, to aid in determining Ionospheric
conductivities and observing precipitating particles; a VLF sounder, to determine
changes in the D-region of the ionosphere; and, a Rio meter, to provide additional
data in these regards, especially for disturbed Ionospheric conditions.
4.3. HF Heater/Antenna Location
One of the major issues to be addressed under the program is the generation
of ELF waves in the ionosphere by HF heating. This requires locating the heater
where there are strong atmospheric currents, either at an equatorial location
or at a high latitude (auroral) location. Additional factors to be considered
in locating the heater include other technical (research) needs and requirements,
environmental issues, future expansion capabilities (real estate), infrastructure,
and considerations of the availability and location of diagnostics. The location
of the new HF heating facility is planned for Australia, relatively near to
a new incoherent scatter facility designed by Gaiacomm.
In addition, it is desirable that the HF heater Antenna be located to permit
rocket probe instrumentation to be flown into the heated region of the ionosphere.
1. Funding sources for Gaiacomm will come from the DOD and
from carefully selected technology license agreements with various communication
companies and companies that manufacture key communication devices.
Gaiacomm will approach the DOD for funding to redo the communication infrastructure
for the submarine communications systems and the entire C 4 I Command, Control,
Communications, Computers and Intelligence operations.
Gaiacomm will not directly apply for grants or awards but through government
there will be channels that will insure protected secrecy for this soon-to-be-classified
project because of the nature of this project.
2. We will talk to introduce this new technology. International conventions
will have to be attended later to formally introduce this new technology for
3.The military applications are separate from the commercial side and will remain
under this protected cloak.
4. Commercially the system will most likely use modified communications hardware
for proper transition and integration into the communications infrastructure
but still at a level of 4G. Towers will be built worldwide with all support
equipment to be used by the system. This system, when adopted, will eventually
replace the current 3G systems planned and in place.
5. The area of coverage will be 196,950,000 square surface miles with each tower
having a broadcast range of over 5 million square surface miles in a 360 degree
footprint from subsurface to above 60 miles above the surface.
6. Digital devices from phones, PDA’s, computers and all wireless devices
will have to be redesigned to accommodate this new architecture. This will of
course spark manufacturing contracts to various companies worldwide and insight
a new industrial revolution that will benefit all companies involved and increase
employment and the bottom line of the GNP worldwide. It will require cooperation
from all levels of governments and private enterprises.
7. The only risks will be the rejection of the technology from various heavily
invested companies that would seem to take a loss in revenue from this new injection
of high-grade technology. Various governments outside the US boarders that feel
left out which can be overcome by collectively sharing this technology which
reduces selective alienation from various sources.
8. The FCC and the ITU if approached correctly will assist in this monumental
insurgence of technology improvements to the communications industry.
The upside is relying on government finance because of the military communication
facelift that will occur once proof of concept and prototype is designed, built
and demonstrated to the DOD and selective companies hand picked by the DOD.
9. In essence, Gaiacomm will design and develop the “Pipe”
for the broadband information to travel through at rates 29 times faster than
currently employed today.
10. The development of a prototype will take approximately 16 months after adequate
investment is received. A fully functional system time frame will be contingent
on the regulatory and governmental agencies that will eventually claim jurisdiction
over this new 4G technology. This will determine the final deployment of the
global communications system. Estimation based on experience and control is
Patents will be filed if deemed necessary by the DOD.
11. Gaiacomm International Corporation would split in two divisions, one defense
the other commercial. The benefit to investors is the fact that a return on
the investment will not take years to redeem. The goal is to apply for public
listing to allow companies and individuals to benefit by owning a piece of history.
multiple access (TDMA) – Approach for allotting single-channel
usage amongst many users, by dividing the channel into slots of time during
which each user has access to the medium.
Synchronous code division multiple access (S-CDMA) –
PN-code-based DS-SS technology where the multiple access codes are kept in clock
synchronization to maintain mutual orthogonality. In some literature, it is
called orthogonal CDMA.
Radio frequency (RF) – Region of spectrum or discipline
of electrical design associated with high analog frequencies that require design
considerations qualitatively different from traditional analog circuit design.
Multichannel multipoint distribution system (MMDS) –
Wireless alternative to a cabled video system.
Low noise amplifier (LNA) – RF gain device designed specifically
for very low imposition of additional noise power. Used to amplify very low
signals without contributing significant SNR degradation.
Integrated services digital network. (ISDN)– The original
very high-speed copper link for data transport. Still a viable high-speed solution,
albeit less hype.
Intermediate frequency (IF) – The carrier center frequency
that often follows a frequency conversion stage operating on an RF input. Chosen
for ease of subsequent processing, functionality, and standardization.
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) – An approach
to sharing a channel by separating the simultaneous users in frequency.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) – Use of digitized words
processed by numerical calculations on a waveform sampled and encoded, using
functions such as filtering, synchronization, and detection.
Digital-to-analog converter (D/A) – The reverse of A/D,
it generates analog output signal from binary input words.
Code division multiple access (CDMA) – Spread spectrum
technique using high-speed pseudorandom (PN) codes to scramble data words and
spread spectral occupancy for added robustness.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) – A packet-switched
network protocol, which uses a pre-established connection route.
Analog-to-digital converter or conversion. (A/D or ADC) –
The process of sampling an analog waveform and describing it in terms of binary
The only real high-speed service that matters right now comes courtesy of IEEE
802.11, the standard employed in wireless LANs (local area networks). The technology
was originally developed for use within enterprises, but its new and rapidly
expanding market is for mobile business environments.
Agencies, Regulatory, and Offices that oversee Communications Technology
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Department of Commerce
Defense Department (DoD)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Staff, US Air Force
Commander in Chief, US Atlantic Command
Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command
Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command
Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command
Commander in Chief, U.S. Special Operations Command
Commander, Submarine Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command
Secretary of the Navy
Secretary of Defense