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Gaiacomm International Corporation

Technology Summary

Project Nemo

(A Gaiacomm International Corporation Technology Document)

Authored by:

Judah Ben-Hur, Ph.D.
Founder, Chairman, CTO, and Chief Technology Officer


Table of Contents

-What is Gaiacomm?
-Gaiacomm Technology

• Magnetic Booster
• Excitation by magneto spherical sources
• ELF and Band Designators

-Journey to Understanding the Technology
-Pioneering Work of Nikola Tesla
-The Navy’s ELF Communication System
-What makes Gaiacomm different?
-An Antenna with Anomalous Radiation Properties
-Current Submarine Communications
-Executive Order
-Gaiacomm Executive Report
-Desired HF Heater/Antenna Characteristics
-Effective-Radiated-Powers (ERP)
-Broad HF Frequency Range
-Scanning Capabilities
-Agility in Changing Heater/Antenna Parameters
-HF Heater/Antenna Location
-Estimated Costs of the two HF Heating/Antenna Facilities
-Program Participants
-Gaiacomm Technology (Revisited)

• Introduction
• Potential Applications
• Ionosphere issues associated with High Power RF Heating
• Desired HF Heating/Antenna Facility



Gaiacomm International Corporation was formed to seek out contracts with all agencies and entities, private and public sector concerns, for the use of a special venture of high technological significance, the “Global Wireless Communications” Technology. This “GWC” technology primarily deals with a global network of land-based communications system that will allow the use of smart phones, PDA’s, Laptop PC’s, and virtually any other wireless device on a global level. Frequency plays an important role for the deployment of the signal. The antenna is also a key factor in the overall design.

In a nutshell, Gaiacomm is a culmination of twenty years of devotion to a field of inquiry by the founder Dr. Judah Ben-Hur. Dr. Ben-Hur has given his prime years of life working full-time with all of his material and non-material resources to find a commercially viable way to overcome all obstacles in perfecting and deploying a truly wireless system of global telecommunication without dependency on satellites.

Gaiacomm has developed the set of designs, drawings, and network of all engineering and environmental specifications to implement this technology. Gaiacomm standards do not violate any regulations, environmental or otherwise, under any local, State, Federal, or local-self government body.
The frequencies used and the methods of deployment are absolutely market friendly.

The rest of the presentation in this document is based on a talk delivered by Dr. Judah Ben-Hur at a presentation before the Board of Directors and Senior Management representatives from various Internet Communications and Financial Corporations in Las Vegas, Nevada, November, 2000.


• Magnetic Booster

Listed in this document are lab notes that are not necessarily in any specific order to explain Maxwell’s understanding of the Aether and its relationship to Ionosphere principles, Magnetic anomalies and the way to capture and construct equipment to transmit and receive data signals at any rate known to science. Mathematical expressions have been eliminated to allow the reader to interpret the words and draw pictures in his mind to see what I, and so many others in the past have discovered but were afraid to write about or do until now. I do not expect the reader to fully comprehend this new science, but I ask the reader to aim at thinking outside the circle and it will become easier to understand what I see.

• Excitation by magnetospheric sources

In first order approximation, the ionosphere can be regarded as a low-pass filter that divides the ULF/ELF frequency range into sources outside the ionosphere and inside the Earth-ionosphere cavity. Geomagnetic pulsations or micro pulsations occur in the ULF range resulting from an interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere whereas ELF slow-tails result from lightning within the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The earth’s ionosphere cavity resonance’s occur in the transitional band between ULF and ELF frequencies where both sources are likely to contribute to the wave phenomena observed at the surface of the Earth. The interference of atmospheric and magnetospheric sources has been addressed but little experimental evidence has been reported. However, geomagnetic activity is well known to vary with intervals of the solar rotation period and the sunspot cycle. Therefore, geomagnetic activity connected to the solar rotation period, expressed by means of sunspot numbers, may temporarily dominate over atmospheric sources. This is especially true during the sunspot cycle maximum.

• ELF and Band Designators

The acronym ELF, which stands for Extremely Low Frequencies, is one of a number of band designators defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) to name bands or ranges of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum. Some of the other designators, along with services or applications, which use that frequency range, are given in the following summary:

In some references the entire frequency range between 3 Hz and 3 kHz is called ELF, with ULF applying to all frequencies below 3 Hz.


The propagation of electromagnetic waves has some unusual properties in the sense that the wavelength is comparable with the earth’s radius. Global electromagnetic resonance may then appear when the frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the resonator formed by the spherical cavity between the earth and the ionosphere. The electrical conductivity of air is very low at low altitudes. However, it increases rapidly with distance from the earth’s surface and is found to be greater by a factor of several million by the time altitudes of a few tens of kilometers are reached and when reaching the beginning layer of the ionosphere. The lower atmosphere is a thin dielectric bounded by good conductors. This defines a spherical wave-guide in which radio waves belonging to different frequency bands can propagate. The upper frequency limit of the wave-guide channel is determined by the depressive properties of the ionosphere, which eventually becomes transparent as the frequency is increased at a few megahertz.

There is no lower frequency limit or higher frequency limit. The earth ionosphere wave-guide can support the propagation of radio waves of frequencies as low or as high as desired, even down to DC current if needed. The absence of a lower critical frequency can readily be understood by recalling that the wave-guide has no lateral boundaries, so that a constant potential difference may exist across the wave-guide. A DC potential difference of natural origin does in fact exist. There is a charging and discharging of the spherical capacitor formed by the earth and the ionosphere.

Earth’s Ionosphere Resonator

Boundaries of the earth’s ionosphere resonator have a very simple configuration if understood. The earth’s surface is uneven and its electrical parameters are functions of position and are often not constant within the depth of the skin layer. The ionosphere, on the other hand, is a magneto ionic multicomponent plasma that is inhomogeneous both in the vertical and horizontal direction.

Electromagnetic waves of extremely low frequency can be excited in the earth Ionosphere cavity by two types of natural sources, terrestrial and cosmic, and now the third is by mechanical means.

Spectral processing of ELF and teraHertz signals was performed by a digital processor and by analogue filtration systems. The process to isolate and record for both took quite a bit of time. I accumulated long records. I will discuss the ELF portion using digital processing: The synchronously reproduced signals were applied to the two channels of the spectral analyzer. Filters were used in each channel to isolate frequency components, which were received by the phase detector and the multiplier. One of the channels was provided with a variable phase shifter. The signal at the output of the phase detector is proportional to the phase of the cross spectrum and controls the phase shifter so to reduce the phase shift to zero. The position of the phase shifter rotor gives the phase of the cross spectrum corresponding to the given spectral components. Signals with equal phases are then received by the multiplier and integrated. The output of the integrator is proportional to the modulus of the cross spectrum at the same frequency. Scanning along the frequency axis was achieved by discrete switching of the heterodyne oscillator. The power spectrum was recorded at the output when the inputs were connected in parallel. All the same except in an analog mode was used for the very high-end frequency in the teraHertz range. ELF radio communications has a very low attenuation and the high signal stability is achieved during the propagation in the earth’s Ionosphere wave-guide. The large skin-layer depth means that radio communications can be established with targets not merely on the earth’s surface but also at various depths below the earth. The output power of the transmitter must be increased to maintain radio communications at any depth, high or very low. The frequency dependence of attenuation in the earth ionosphere wave-guide channel is known but will not be disclosed in this paper. If known then one could choose the optimum wavelength and the other parameters of the radio communications link.

Pioneering Work of Nikola Tesla

Before I may continue explaining any further, I recommend the reader reference patents of Nikola Tesla and Bernard Eastlund to further understand the hardware equipment that will be used to transmit and receive radio signals at 1-29 hertz and 1-29 teraHertz and the method of use. The patents of Tesla have been modified, in principle, to current technology of today. If after reviewing all the this data including the above written data, if the reader still does not have a clear understanding then it is clear that the reader does not have the ability to think outside the circle (remember, my condition at the outset?). As long as you tend to remain inside the circle, you are bound to wonder, and wonder.

The above-mentioned equipment is what makes up the equipment needed to build a global wireless communications system. First, I would read my White Paper, titled “The Art of Global Wireless Communications” to introduce you to the system as well as the purpose for which it will be used.

Refer Tesla patents: #645,576, System of transmission of electrical energy, patented March 20, 1900. #649,621. Apparatus for transmission of electrical energy, patented May 15, 1900, #1,119,732 Apparatus for transmission of electrical energy, patented December 1, 1914.

Antennae would be used to focus an intense beam of electromagnetic energy into the upper atmosphere where it would collide with the ionosphere to create a phenomenon called the "mirror force." Bernard Eastlund was granted a US Patent (# 4,686,605) for this invention on August 11, 1987. In addition, it can be modified to become a wireless communications device.


Seawater is a hindrance to communication

The ELF frequency range is critically important to the Navy because of its value in providing a way to communicate with submerged submarines. Because of the high electrical conductivity of seawater, signals attenuate (or decrease) rapidly as they propagate downward through the seawater. In effect, the seawater "hides" the submarine from detection while simultaneously preventing it from communicating with the outside world through normal radio transmissions.

Frequency is inversely proportional to depth below seawater

The degree to which a signal is attenuated depends on its frequency. However, the lower the frequency, the deeper a signal can be received in seawater. In order to receive conventional radio transmissions a submarine must travel at slow speeds and be near the surface of the water. Both of these situations make a submarine more susceptible to enemy detection. Frequencies in the ELF range can be received considerably deeper, and broadcasts using this mode provide a primary link between the nation's commander-in-chief and the submarine force.

One of the great difficulties associated with the use of ELF for communication purposes, is the problem of generating a useful signal. The physical size of an antenna, that can produce a useable signal with reasonable efficiency, is inversely proportional to the frequency. For example, an antenna useful for cellular telephone frequencies, need only be several inches long to be completely effective. At ELF, on the other hand, a reasonably efficient antenna must be quite large. This is an issue that Gaiacomm has overcome.

The ELF system, which became operational in 1989, uses two transmitting antennas, one in Wisconsin and one in Michigan. The two sites must operate simultaneously to meet worldwide coverage requirements. Each antenna looks like a power line, mounted on wooden poles. The Wisconsin antenna consists of two lines, each about 14 miles long. The Michigan antenna uses three lines, two about 14 miles long and one about 28 miles long. Each site has a transmitter building near the antenna. The transmitter facility in Michigan uses about six acres of land and the one in Wisconsin about two acres. The operating frequency is 76 Hz.

The construction required no relocation of people or buildings. The antenna location in State and National forests avoided buildings, historic sites, villages, and towns. Construction contractors coordinated extensively with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Forest Service to avoid rare vegetation and to repopulate the easement with local flora.

The National Academy of Sciences reviewed the ELF program in 1977 for possible ecological effects. While it found none at that time, the study did recommend that the Navy conduct an ecological monitoring program. As a result, in the last 24 years, several universities, funded by the Navy, conducted independent studies to look for ecological effects of ELF. The studies found no adverse effects on animals, plants, or microorganisms at the ELF system test sites.


Gaiacomm’s system: 95 percent of the electrical energy is manifested at the transmitters output as current waves with the balance directed to the antenna structure, resulting in dissipating EM radiation.
The field amplitude varies inversely as the square root of the horizontal distance.

Satellite communication is limited by four factors:

1.Technological limitations preventing the deployment of large, high gain antennas on the satellite platform.
2. Over-crowding of available bandwidths due to low antenna gains.
3. The high investment cost and insurance cost associated with significant probability of failure (Iridium).
4. High atmospheric losses above 30 GHZ limit carrier frequencies.

Satellite Technology Is Very Costly

The cost of constructing a satellite antenna is a strong function of its size. A rough rule of thumb is that cost is proportional to the diameter cubed. Thus, a doubling of the antenna size will result in the satellite cost increasing eight times. The limitation in antenna size means that the satellite beam is wide. In order to prevent electromagnetic interference with terrestrial stations, the power radiated by the satellite is limited by international convention. In any event, power is severely limited on a satellite platform, like Iridium. In addition, because the radiated power is low, large receiving antennas are required. These factors make satellite systems very extremely expensive.

The use of land based antennas for regional communication is possible if there is sufficient demand for traffic. Gaiacomm will offer a direct to user ground based wireless system without the high costs of satellite systems.

Improvements in satellite receiver technology have permitted smaller antennas to be used as ground station receivers. However, antennas are reciprocal. They have the same directional characteristics in transmit and receive. The use of low gain, wide beam earth stations for direct to user systems has contributed considerably to the bandwidth-overcrowding problem, particularly in the USA.

Gaiacomm’s Earth Station transmission system has overcome these above mentioned satellite problems by offering a true real-time upload and download system with no loss in data of any kind, while operating in a low frequency range of between 1HZ to 29HZ as the base signal. This allows the complete signal to be received and transmitted from 500 meters under ocean water to 15 miles in airspace, such as highflying aircraft. There is no interference to any commercial or military band or will there be any intrusion on any international convention. The actual imbedded pulsed signal is in the tera-gigabit range, (ten to the thirteenth). 1 teraHertz to 29 teraHertz

Gaiacomm Seeking Membership of ITU

Gaiacomm is applying for membership in the ITU, International Telecommunications Union, to begin the process of defining a new communications operating spectrum. This means all new equipment will be manufactured and deployed first for humanitarian relief workers in the field, followed by the introduction of this system in the commercial sector without the need to improve or incorporate technology into existing failing communication systems worldwide.

Very Low Frequency communication transmitters use digital signals to communicate with submerged submarines. (Just a note: GPS tracking and other forms of data use will be incorporated into the wireless network for eventual subscribers).


Antennas designed to radiate electric and magnetic fields in quadrature time phase are found to have anomalous radiation properties relative to the in-phase propagation properties of the conventional dipole. It is shown that there is a marked advantage in wave survival efficiency over the dipole, increasingly evident beyond a mile range. This is attributed to the excitation of a natural wave propagation mode by the new antenna, rather than the dipole's forced wave propagation and the degeneration of the latter over the short range into a natural wave with some energy dissipation.


Submarines communicate via multiple, complementary RF systems, covering nearly all the military communications frequencies. Because of these limitations, no one communications system or frequency band can support all submarine communications requirements. For example, UHF SATCOM provides a relatively high data rate but requires the submarine to expose a detectable mast-mounted antenna, degrading its primary attribute — stealth. Conversely, extremely low frequency (ELF) and VLF broadcast communications provide submarines a high degree of stealth and flexibility in speed and depth, but are low data rate, submarine-unique and shore-to-submarine only. Submarine satellite communication data rates are limited by the lack of a large aperture antenna. Current satellite resources, whether military or commercial, are limited in the amount of effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) provided in the space-to-earth segment. Large antenna gains are therefore required at the submarine, which in turn requires large aperture antennas. To be interoperable, submarines require antennas with performance comparable to the least-capable TOMAHAWK-equipped surface ship. As a reference point, the least capable TOMAHAWK-equipped surface ship uses a four-foot reflector antenna for operation.

Phased Arrays and Reflector Antennas

Two primary antenna designs, which provide high gain and directivity, are phased arrays and reflectors. Reflector antennas are commonly used on surface ship platforms, but they are typically bulky and difficult to store in a small volume, and require mechanical steering. Phased arrays are versatile, allowing electronic beam scanning, conformal design flexibility, and modular construction to improve stow ability. Although phased arrays have been expensive in the past, recent technological breakthroughs have the potential to significantly reduce the design and manufacturing costs of phased arrays and their components.

The Submarine Communications Exploratory Development Program is managed by the Submarine Electromagnetic Systems Department (Code 34) of the NUWC, Naval Undersea Warfare Center under sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research, Science, and Technology Directorate (ONR-ST, Office of Naval Research, Science and Technology Directorate Code 313). The Submarine Communications Program is organized into two thrusts to support the requirements in the Post-Soviet era: 1) provide robust, high data rate interoperable submarine communications in all operational areas (Joint Interoperable High Data Rate Communications); and 2) improve downlink communications at speed and depth (Communications at Speed and Depth).

The first thrust, Joint Interoperable High Data Rate Communications, includes the research in submarine communications architectures to permit the submarine to participate in Navy and Joint force networks. It also provides a focus for the development and improvement of submarine antennas, which are needed to support this participation for the transfer of data at rates that exceed the capabilities of existing submarine communications systems. This is an area of increased emphasis.
The second thrust, Communications at Speed and Depth, includes the research needed to improve antennas and systems that permit the transfer of information to submarines operating in their speed/depth envelope below periscope depths. At a minimum, a one-way call-up system is needed. Research is also supported to increase the data rate capability of low profile antennas used to reach the surface from depth such as buoyant cable antennas. There are four projects within the Submarine Communications Exploratory Development Program. These are:
• Low-Profile Submarine Communications Antenna,
• Open Architecture for Submarine Communications Networks,
• Submarine SHF Communications, and
• Submarine ELF Communications.
Two additional requirements are: a) communications interoperability with the Joint Task Force, and b) covert receipt of continuous record traffic. These requirements stem from current restrictions in timeliness and data throughput of current communications available at speed and depth. Certain modes of operation are currently not available, such as extended transmission capability to a Task Force from a submarine at depth.

Gaiacomm will develop an open systems approach to submarine phased array communications antenna systems that will allow the collocation of additional electromagnetic capabilities such as ESM, radar, electronic countermeasures (ECM), and millimeter wave imaging within the same aperture. Gaiacomm will develop the technology needed to demonstrate the feasibility of a hull-mounted ELF antenna with controllable beam pattern, capable of surviving maximum submarine speeds and depths and capable of providing reception down at several hundred feet at operational speeds.

The submarine communications system is an end-to-end system with connectivity established between the submarine shipboard SCSS, Submarine Communications Support System node and the submarine shore site communication facilities node. The submarine shore communication facilities are located worldwide and consist of ELF, VLF, LF, HF, and SSIXS, / OTCIXS Submarine Satellite Information Exchange System, Officer in Tactical Command Information Exchange System shore sites. In the future, submarine HDR Communications using EHF, SHF, and Commercial satellite RF resources will become an integral part of the submarine shore C 4 I, Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence infrastructure. Using all shore site assets, submarine command and control connectivity is assured. Submarine shore site facilities have the capability to be transmitters, receivers, or both depending on their function and use within the radio frequency spectrum.

The ELF communications system consists of two high power shore transmitter stations controlled by a submarine BCA, Broadcast Control Authority. The two ELF transmitter facilities are located at Clam Lake, Wisconsin and Republic, Michigan.

This unique communication system is designed to transmit short alerting messages to submarines operating far below the ocean surface. The ELF frequencies used, in the 40–80 Hz range, were selected for their long-range signal propagation (i.e., global) and ability to penetrate seawater to depths several hundred feet below the surface. In addition to the inherent covertness this communication system provides, it also provides the submarine Commanding Officer with operational flexibility to remain at required mission depth and speed. The ELF communication system is used as a “bell ringer” to notify the submarine crew to come shallow to copy a higher data rate broadcast. The Gaiacomm system eliminates this requirement by allowing the submarine to remain submerged at any required depth to remain stealth.

Alliance solidarity is a key to national defense strategy and, as would be expected, drives a key interest in bilateral and multilateral submarine operations and communications. As with the U.S., VLF/LF communications is the backbone of NATO submarine command and control.
Gaiacomm will address all of these requirements with a communications system that will satisfy the above-mentioned concerns and requests.

Submarines’ future missions will require a revolution in communications connectivity and supporting bandwidth. The vision is to allow submarines to communicate without the current restrictions of depth and speed and with sufficient bandwidth to maximize the effectiveness of data and intelligence collected by the submarine, such that real-time connectivity and reach-back is achieved. Gaiacomm is the answer.

Executive Order 12472 of April 3, 1984 - Narration.

Section 1. The National Communications System.

(a) There is hereby established the National Communications System (NCS). The NCS shall consist of the telecommunications assets of the entities represented on the NCS Committee of Principals and an administrative structure consisting of the Executive Agent, the NCS Committee of Principals, and the Manager. The NCS Committee of Principals shall consist of representatives from those Federal departments, agencies or entities, designated by the President, which lease or own telecommunications facilities or services of significance to national security or emergency preparedness, and, to the extent permitted by law, other Executive entities which bear policy, regulatory or enforcement responsibilities of importance to national security or emergency preparedness telecommunications capabilities.

(b) The mission of the NCS shall be to assist the President, the National Security Council, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget in:
(1) The exercise of the telecommunications functions and responsibilities set forth in Section 2 of this Order; and
(2) The coordination of the planning for and provision of national security and emergency preparedness communications for the Federal government under all circumstances, including crisis or emergency, attack, recovery and reconstitution.

(c) The NCS shall seek to ensure that a national telecommunications infrastructure is developed which:
(1) Is responsive to the national security and emergency preparedness needs of the President and the Federal departments, agencies and other entities, including telecommunications in support of national security leadership and continuity of government;
(2) Is capable of satisfying priority telecommunications requirements under all circumstances through use of commercial, government and privately owned telecommunications resources;
(3) Incorporates the necessary combination of hardness, redundancy, mobility, connectivity, interoperability, restorability and security to obtain, to the maximum extent practicable, the survivability of national security and emergency preparedness telecommunications in all circumstances, including conditions of crisis or emergency; and
(4) Is consistent, to the maximum extent practicable, with other national telecommunications policies.

Section 2. The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall provide information, advice, guidance and assistance, as appropriate, to the President and to those Federal departments and agencies with responsibilities for the provision, management, or allocation of telecommunications resources, during those crises or emergencies in which the exercise of the President's war power functions is not required or permitted by law.



• An exciting and challenging aspect of Ionosphere enhancement is its potential to control Ionosphere processes in such a way as to greatly improve the performance of 4G and C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence communication systems. A key goal of the program is the identification, investigation of those Ionosphere processes, and phenomena that can be exploited for DOD and Commercial purposes, such as those outlined below.

• Generation of ELF waves in the 1-29 Hz band to provide communications to deeply submerged submarines and for the commercial 4G wireless networks.

• Geophysical probing to identify and characterize natural Ionosphere processes that limit the performance of 4G global wireless systems and C 4 I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence), so that techniques can be developed to mitigate or control them. Generation of Ionosphere lenses to focus large amounts of HF energy at high altitudes in the ionosphere, thus providing a means for triggering Ionosphere processes that could potentially be exploited for DOD and commercial communications purposes.

• Electron acceleration for the generation of IR and other optical emissions, and to create additional ionization in selected regions of the ionosphere that could be used to control radio wave - propagation properties.

• This system will attempt to comply with all international conventions that govern environmental procedures. Through experiments using ELF and VLF modulation techniques, unexpected effects occurred on the biosphere. It was found that plant life and other microorganisms responded favorably to the modulation techniques applied in isolated experiments. Animal life did not seem to suffer any adverse effects. In the experiment it was found that plant life responded with an increase in the metabolic process of growth. By understanding the modulation techniques applied, it will be possible to enhance all biological entities metabolic rates to some degree. More tests will have to be documented in parallel with the construction of the prototype in order to fully validate the biological and environmental effects.

(Generation of geomagnetic-field aligned ionization to control the reflection/scattering properties of radio waves will result in a number of outcomes. It will jam unwanted signals, make data stealth, and focus RF signals to localized areas to selectively ignite the surrounding atmosphere, which will create a flash burn effect. This effect will incinerate all air and ground living and non-living entities. In short, a military weapon of unprecedented proportions with no nuclear radiation generated aftereffects. This device can use the surrounding atmospheric layers to burn off everything in its path without firing a single shot. Localizing atmospheric area techniques to selected targeted areas can also be accomplished with this heating process. In short, using the Compton effect to alter the air to ground electric charge. This is even more effective than EMP during a nuclear blast.)

• Oblique heating to produce effects on radio wave propagation at great distances from a HF heater, thus is broadening the potential military applications of Ionosphere enhancement technology and commercial 4G wireless communications.

• Generation of ionization layers below 90 km to provide, radio wave reflectors (mirrors), which can be exploited for long range, over-the-horizon, HF/VHF/UHF surveillance purposes, including the detection of cruise missiles and other low observable in addition the allowance of global broadband access on a wireless network by worldwide consumers, i.e. voice, data, video, email, and all unmentioned forms of data exchange.

Desired HF Heater/Antenna Characteristics

A new, unique, HF heating/antenna facility is required to address the broad range of issues identified above. However, in order to have a useful facility at various stages of its development, it is important that the heater/antenna be constructed in a modular manner, such that its effective-radiated-power can be increased in an efficient, cost effective manner as resources become available.

Effective-Radiated-Powers (ERP) in Excess of one Gigawatt

One gigawatt of effective-radiated-power represents an important threshold power level, over which significant wave generation and electron acceleration efficiencies can be achieved, and other significant heating effects can be expected. The power will come from natural gas reserves in the earths crust generated by a generation process supplied by an independent developer of that technology.

Broad HF Frequency Range

The desired heater/antenna would have a frequency range from around one tetra-gigaHertz to about 30 teraHertz, thereby allowing a wide range of Ionsopheric processes to be investigated.

Scanning Capabilities

A heater/antenna that has rapid scanning capabilities is very desirable to enlarge the size of heated regions in the ionosphere Continuous Wave (CW) and Pulse Modes of Operation. Flexibility in choosing heating modes of operation will allow a wider variety of Ionospheric enhancement techniques and issues to be addressed.


The facility should permit both X and O polarization in order to study Ionospheric processes over a range of altitudes.

Agility in Changing Heater/Antenna Parameters

The ability to quickly change the heater/antenna parameters is important for addressing such issues as enlarging the size of the heated region the ionosphere and the development of techniques to insure that the energy densities desired in the ionosphere can be delivered without self-limiting effects setting-in.

HF Heating/Antenna Diagnostics

In order to understand natural Ionospheric processes as well as those induced through active modification of the ionosphere, adequate instrumentation is required to measure a wide range of Ionospheric parameters on the appropriate-temporal and spatial scales. A key diagnostic these measurements will be an incoherent scatter radar facility to provide the means to monitor such background plasma conditions as electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, and electric fields, all as a function of altitude. The incoherent scatter radar facility, will have to be built with a tower and support equipment in two locations to allow transmit and receive end results.

For ELF generation experiments, the diagnostics complement would include two ELF receivers, a digital HF ionosonde, a magnetometer, photometers, a VLF sounder, and a VHF Rio meter. In other experiments, in site measurements of the heated region in the ionosphere, via rocket-borne instrumentation, would also be very desirable. Other diagnostics to be employed, depending on the nature of the Ionospheric modifications being implemented, will include HF receivers, HF/VHF radars, optical imagers, and scintillation observations designed by Gaiacomm engineers.

HF Heater/Antenna Location

One of the major issues to be addressed under the project is the generation of ELF waves in the ionosphere by HF heating. This requires locating the heater/antenna where there are strong Ionospheric currents, either at an equatorial location or a high latitude (auroral) location. Additional factors to be considered in locating the heater/antenna include other technical (research) needs and requirements, environmental issues, future expansion capabilities (real estate), infrastructure, and considerations of the availability and location of diagnostics. The location of the new HF heating/antenna facility is planned for Australia.

In addition, it is desirable that the HF heater/antenna be located to permit rocket probe instrumentation to be flown into the heated region of the ionosphere. The exact location in Australia for the proposed new HF heating/antenna facility has not yet been determined.

Estimated Cost of the two New HF Heating/Antenna Facilities

It is estimated that six to nine million dollars ($6-9 M) will provide a new facility with an effective-radiated-power and with considerable improvements in the ability to tune frequencies and antenna-beam steering capability. The facility will be of modular design to permit efficient and cost-effective upgrades in power as additional funds become available. The desired (world-class) facility, having the broad capabilities and flexibility described above, will cost about twenty-five to thirty million dollars ($25-30M).

Program Participants

The Navy and the Air Force should jointly assist managing the project. However, because of the wide variety of issues to be addressed, active participation of the government agencies, universities, and private contractors is envisioned.


The Gaiacomm 4G technology is especially attractive in that it will insure that research in an emerging, revolutionary, technological area will be focused towards identifying and exploiting techniques to greatly enhance global wireless communications and C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence capabilities. The heart of the program will be the development of a unique Ionospheric heating capability to conduct the pioneering experiments required to adequately assess the potential for exploiting Ionospheric enhancement technology for the DOD (Dept. of Defense) and the commercial wireless communications infrastructure. As outlined below, such a research facility will provide the means for investigating the creation, maintenance, and control of a large number and wide variety of Ionospheric processes that, if exploited, could provide significant operational capabilities and advantages over conventional commercial 3G wireless and C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence systems. The research to be conducted in the program will include basic, exploratory, and applied efforts.

1. Introduction

DOD agencies already have on-going efforts in the broad area of active Ionospheric experiments, including Ionospheric enhancements. These include both space- and ground-based approaches. The space-based efforts include chemical releases (e.g., the Air Force's Brazilian Ionospheric Modification Experiment, BIME; the Navy's RED AIR program; and multi-agency participation in the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, CRRES). In addition, other planned programs will employ particle beams and accelerators aboard rockets (e.g., EXCEDE and CHARGE IV), and shuttle- or satellite-borne RF transmitters (e.g., WISP and ACTIVE). Ground-based techniques employ the use of high power, radio frequency (RF) transmitters (so-called "heaters") to provide the energy in the ionosphere that causes it to be altered or enhanced. The use of such heaters/antennas has a number of advantages over space-based approaches.

These include the possibility of repeating experiments under controlled conditions, and the capability of conducting a wide variety of experiments using the same facility. For example, depending on the RF frequency and effective radiated power (ERP) used, different regions of the atmosphere and the ionosphere can be affected to produce a number of practical effects.

Because of the nature of current wireless communications technology limitations and lack of forward thinking, this project is focused on developing a global wireless communications system deploying ground-based, high power RF heating antennas to allow the DOD and the commercial wireless infrastructure to enjoy the benefits of a full broadband wireless communications system at transmit and receive rates that exceed, by a factor of 3, the current megabit rates thus far.

To date, most DOD Ionospheric heating experiments have been conducted to gain better understanding of Ionospheric processes, i.e., they have been used as geophysical-probes. In this, one perturbs the ionosphere, and then studies how it responds to the disturbance and how it ultimately recovers back to ambient conditions. The use of Ionospheric enhancement to simulate Ionospheric processes and phenomena are a more recent development, made possible by the increasing knowledge being obtained on how they evolve naturally. By simulating natural Ionospheric effects, it is possible to assess how they may affect the performance of DOD and commercial wireless systems. From a DOD point of view, however, the most exciting and challenging aspect of Ionospheric enhancement is its potential to control Ionospheric processes in such a way as to greatly enhance the performance of C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence systems (or to deny accessibility to an adversary). This is a revolutionary concept in that, rather than accepting the limitations imposed on operational systems by the natural ionosphere, it envisions seizing control of the propagation medium and shaping it to insure that a desired system capability can be achieved. A key ingredient of the Gaiacomm project is the identifying and investigating those Ionospheric processes and phenomena that can be exploited for such purposes.

2. Potential Applications

A brief description of a variety of potential applications of Ionospheric-enhancement technology that could be addressed is outlined below.

2.1. Geophysical Probing

The use of Ionospheric heating to investigate natural Ionospheric processes is a traditional one. Such-research is still required in order to develop models of the ionosphere that can be used to reliably predict the performance of C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence systems and 4G wirelesses, under both normal and disturbed Ionospheric conditions. This aspect of Ionospheric enhancement research is always available to the investigator; in effect, as a by-product of any Ionospheric enhancement research, even if it is driven by specific system applications goals, such as mentioned below.

2.2. Generation of ELF/VLF Waves

A number of critical DOD communications systems rely on the use of ELF/VLF (30 Hz-30 kHz) radio waves. These include those associated with the Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network (MEECN) and those used to disseminate messages to submerged submarines. In the latter, frequencies in the 70-150 Hz range are especially attractive, but difficult to generate efficiently with ground-based antenna systems. The potential exists for generating lower frequency waves by ground-based heating of the ionosphere. The heater/antenna is used to modulate the conductivity of the lower ionosphere, which in turn modulates Ionospheric currents. This modulated current, in effect, produces a virtual antenna in the ionosphere for the radiation of radio waves. The technique has already been used to generate ELF/VLF signals at a number of vertical HF heating facilities in the West and the Soviet Union. To date, however, these efforts have been confined to essentially basic research studies, and few attempts have been made to investigate ways to increase the efficiency of such ELF/VLF generation to make it attractive for communications applications. In this regard, heater generated ELF would be attractive if it could provide significantly stronger signals than those available from the Navy's existing antenna systems in Wisconsin and Michigan. Recent theoretical research suggests that this may be possible, provided the appropriate HF heating/antenna facility was available. Because this area of research appears especially promising, and because of existing DOD, requirements for ELF and VLF and the current 3G systems behind schedule, it is a primary driver of the Gaiacomm communications system technology.

In addition to its potential application to long range, survivability, and DOD communications, there is another potentially attractive application of strong ELF/VLF waves generated in the ionosphere by ground-based antennas. It is known that ELF/VLF signals generated by lightning propagates through the ionosphere and interact with charged particles trapped along geomagnetic field lines, causing them, from time to time, to precipitate into the lower ionosphere. If such processes could be reliably controlled, it would be possible to develop techniques to deplete selected regions of the radiation belts of particles, for short periods, thus allowing satellites to operate within them without harm to their electronic components. Any of the critical issues associated with this concept of radiation-belt control could be investigated as part of the Gaiacomm project.

2.3. Generation of Ionospheric Holes/Lens

It is well known that HF heating produces local depletions ("holes") of electrons, thus altering the refractive properties of the ionosphere. This in turn affects the propagation of radio waves passing through that region. If techniques could be developed to exploit this phenomenon in such a way as to create an artificial lens, it should be possible to use the lens as a focus to deliver much larger amounts of HF energy to higher altitudes in the ionosphere than is presently possible. This would open the door for triggering new Ionsopheric processes and phenomena that potentially could be exploited for DOD and commercial 4G communication purposes. In fact, the general issue of developing techniques to insure that large energy densities can be made available at selected regions in the ionosphere from ground-based heaters, is an important issue that must be addressed in the Gaiacomm project.

2.4. Electron Acceleration

If sufficient energy densities are available in the ionosphere it should be possible to accelerate electrons to high energies, ranging from a few eV to even KeV and MeV levels. Such a capability would provide the means for a number of interesting applications.

Electrons in the ionosphere accelerated to a few eV would generate a variety of IR and optical emissions. Observation and quantification of them would provide data on the concentration of minor constituents in the lower ionosphere and upper atmosphere, which cannot be obtained using conventional probing techniques. Such data would be important for the development of reliable models of the lower ionosphere, which are ultimately used in developing radio-wave propagation prediction techniques. In addition, heater generated IR/optical emission, over selected areas of the earth could potentially be used to blind space-based military sensors.

Electrons accelerated to energy levels in the 14-20 eV range would produce new ionization in the ionosphere, via collisions with neutral particles. This suggests that it may be possible to "condition" the ionosphere so that it would support HF propagation during periods when the natural ionosphere was especially weak. This could potentially be exploited for long-range (OTH) HF communication/surveillance purposes. Finally, the use of an HF heater to accelerate electrons to KeV or MeV energy levels could be used, in conjunction with satellite sensor measurements, for controlled investigations of the effects of high-energy electrons on space platforms. There is already indication that high power transmitters on spacecraft accelerate electrons in space to such high energy levels, and that those charged particles can affect the spade- craft with harmful effects. The processes, which trigger such phenomena and the development of techniques to avoid or mitigate them, will be investigated as part of the Gaiacomm project.

2.5. Generation of Field Aligned Ionization

HF heating of the ionosphere produces patches of ionization that are aligned with the geomagnetic field, thus producing scattering centers for RF waves. Natural processes also produce such scattering, as evidenced by the scintillations observed on satellite-to-ground links in the equatorial and high latitude regions. The use of a HF heater/antenna to generate such scattering would provide a controlled way to investigate the natural physical processes that produce them, and could lead conceivably to the development of techniques to predict their natural occurrence, their structure and persistence, and (ultimately) the degree to which they would affect C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence and 4G communications systems.

One interesting potential application of heater induced field-aligned ionization is ducted HF Propagation. It is known that there are high altitude ducts in the E- and F-regions of the ionosphere (110-250 km altitude range) that can support global HF Propagation. Normally, geometrical considerations show that it is not possible to gain access to these ducts from ground-based HF transmitters, from time-to time; however, natural gradients in the ionosphere (often associated with the day-night terminator) provide a means for scattering such HF signals into the elevated ducts. If access to such ducts can be done reliably, very long-range HF communications and surveillance applications can be developed.

For example, survivable HF propagation above nuclear disturbed Ionospheric regions would be possible; or, the very long-range detection of missiles breaking through the ionosphere on their way to targets could be achieved. Gaiacomm will provide the means for an HF heater/antenna to produce field-aligned ionization in a controlled (reliable) way. The experiment calls for a heater/antenna in Australia to generate field-aligned ionization that will scatter HF signals from a nearby transmitter into elevated ducts. A satellite receiver will record the signals to provide data on the efficiency of the field-aligned ionization as RF scatterers, as well as the location, persistence, and HF propagation properties associated with the elevated ducts.

2.6. Oblique HF Heating

Most RF heating experiments being conducted in the West and in the Soviet Union employ vertically propagating HF waves. As such, the region of the ionosphere that is affected is directly above the heater. For broader military applications and 4G communications, the potential for significantly altering regions of the ionosphere at relatively great distances (1000 km and more) from a heater/antenna is very desirable. This involves the concept of oblique heating. The subject takes an added importance in that higher and higher effective radiated powers are being projected for future HF communication and surveillance systems. The potential for those systems to inadvertently modify the ionosphere, thereby producing self-limiting effects, is a real one that should be investigated. In addition, the vulnerability of HF systems to unwanted effects produced by other high power transmitters (friend or foe) should be addressed.

2.7. Generation of Ionization Layers below 90 Km

The use of very high power RF heaters/antennas to accelerate electrons to 14-20 eV opens the way for the creation of substantial layers of ionization at altitudes where normally there are very few electrons. This concept has already been the subject of investigations by the Air Force (Geophysics Lab), the Navy (MU), and DARPA. The Air Force in particular, has carried the concept, termed Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM), to the point of demonstrating its technical viability and proposing a new initiative to conduct proof-of-concepts experiments.

3. Ionospheric issues associated with High Power RF Heating

As the HF power delivered to the ionosphere is continuously increased the dissipative process dominating the response of the geophysical environment changes discontinuously, producing a variety of Ionospheric effects that require investigation.

3.1. Thresholds of Ionospheric Effects

At very modest HF powers, two RF waves propagating through a common volume of ionosphere will experience cross-modulation, a superposition of the amplitude modulation of one RF wave upon another. At HF effective radiated powers available to Gaiacomm researchers, measurable bulk electron and ion gas heating is achieved, electromagnetic radiation (at frequencies other than transmitted) is stimulated, and various parametric instabilities are excited in the plasma. These include those that structure the plasma so that it scatters RF energy of a wide range of wave lengths.

There is also evidence that Gaiacomm researchers have discovered that at peak power operation parametric instabilities begin to saturate, and at the same time modest amounts of energy begin to go into electron acceleration, resulting in modest levels of electron-impact excited airglow. This suggests that at the highest HF powers available, the instabilities commonly studied are approaching their maximum RF energy dissipative capability, beyond which the plasma processes will "runaway" until the next limiting process is reached. The airglow enhancements strongly suggest that this next process then involves wave-particle interactions and electron acceleration. Gaiacomm has controlled and overcome this finding by operating at a higher power than even the Soviets.

The Soviets, operating at high power, now have claimed significant stimulated ionization by electron-impact ionization. The claim is that HF energy, via wave-particle interaction, accelerates Ionospheric electrons to energies well in excess of 20 electron volts (eV) so that they will ionize neutral atmospheric particles with which they collide. Gaiacomm researchers have developed a way to operate at a high power even greater than the Soviet HF facilities at comparable mid-latitudes. Gaiacomm researchers discovered a new "wave-particle" regime of phenomena, it is believed that the Soviets have crossed that threshold and are exploring a regime of study of which Gaiacomm researches have already accomplished ahead of the Soviet research teams.

The only other facility that can generate high power is the Max Planck HF facility at Tromso, Norway, possessing power comparable to that of the Soviet high power heaters/antennas. Gaiacomm researchers now know how to make the auroral latitude ionosphere sustain the conditions required to allow the particle acceleration process to dominate conditions that are achieved in the (more stable) mid- latitude regions.

What is clear, is that at the gigawatt and above effective radiated power energy density deposited in limited regions of the ionosphere can drastically alter its thermal, refractive, scattering, and emission character over a very wide electromagnetic (radio frequency) and optical spectrum. Gaiacomm has the knowledge of how to select desired effects and suppress undesired ones. Gaiacomm understands, this can only be done by: identifying and understanding what basic processes are involved, and how they interplay, This was done by driven strong experiments steered by tight coupling to the interactive cycle of developing theory-model-experimental tests.

3.2. General Ionospheric Issues

When a high-power HF radio wave reflects in the ionosphere, a variety of instability processes are triggered. At early times (less than 200 ms) following HF turn-on, micro instabilities driven by ponderomotive forces are excited over a large (1-10 km) altitude interval extending downwards from the point of HF reflection to the region of the upper hybrid resonance. However, at very early times (less than 50 ms) and at late times (greater than l0 s) the strongest HF-induced Langmuir turbulence appears to occur near HF reflection. The Langmuir turbulence also gives rise to a population of accelerates electrons. Over time scales of hundreds of milliseconds and longer, the micro instabilities must coexist with other instabilities that are either triggered or directly driven by the HF-induced turbulence. Some of these instabilities are believed to be explosive in character. The dissipation of the Langmuir turbulence is thought to give rise to meter-scale irregularities through several different instability routes. Finally, over time scales of tens of seconds and longer, several thermally driven instabilities can be excited which give rise to kilometer-scale Ionospheric irregularities. Some of these irregularities are aligned with the geomagnetic field, while others are either aligned along the axis of the HF beam or parallel to the horizontal.
Recently, Ionospheric diagnostics of HF modification have evolved to the point where individual instability processes can be examined in detail. Because of improved diagnostic capabilities, it is now clear that the wave-plasma interactions, once thought to be rather simple, are in fact rather complex. For example, the latest experimental findings at Arecibo Observatory suggest that plasma processes responsible for the excitation of Langmuir turbulence in the ionosphere are fundamentally different from past treatments based on so-called "weak turbulence theory".

This theoretical approach relies on random phase approximations to treat the amplification of linear plasma waves by parametric instabilities. Research in HF Ionospheric modification during the period 1970-1996 commonly focused on parametric instabilities to explain observational results. In contrast, there is in increasing evidence that the conventional picture is wrong and that the Ionospheric plasma undergoes a highly nonlinear development, culminating in the formation of localized states of strong plasma turbulence. The highly localized state (often referred to as cavitons) consists of high-frequency plasma waves trapped in self- consistent electron density depletions.

It is important to realize that a much different instability is simultaneously excited in the plasma and that one instability process can greatly influence the development of another. Gaiacomm researchers have studied other research studies of competition between similar types of instability processes and the interaction between dissimilar wave-plasma interactions. It is clear that the degree to which one instability is excited in the plasma may severely impact a variety of other HF-induced processes through HF-induced pump wave absorption, changes in particle distribution functions, and the disruption op other coherently-driven processes relying on smooth Ionospheric electron density gradients. Because the efficiency of many instability processes is dependent on geomagnetic dip angle, the nature of instability competition in the plasma is expected to change with geomagnetic latitude. Indeed, observational results strongly support this notion. Consequently, it may be very difficult to extrapolate the observational results obtained from one geomagnetic latitude to another. Moreover, even at one Gaiacomm experimental station, a physical phenomenon excited by a high-power HF wave is strongly dependent upon background Ionospheric conditions. A classic illustration of this point may be found in Arecibo observations made when local electron energy dissipation rates are low. In this case, the Ionospheric plasma literally overheats due to the absence of effective electron thermal loss processes.

The large (factor of four) enhancement in electron temperature that accompanies this phenomenon gives rise to a class of instability processes that are completely different from others observed under "normal" conditions where the Ionospheric thermal balance is not greatly disrupted. At ERPs greater than a gigawatt (greater than 90 dBW), ponderomotive forces are no longer small compared to thermal forces. This may qualitatively change the nature of the instability processes in the ionosphere. Experimental research in this area, however, must wait until such powerful Ionospheric heaters/antennas are developed at Gaiacomm.

3.3. High Latitude Ionospheric Issues

Radio wave heating of the ionosphere at mid-latitudes (e.g., Arecibo and Platteville) has occurred under conditions where the background ionosphere (prior to turning on the heater) was fairly laminar, stable, fixed, etc. However, at high latitudes (i.e., auroral latitudes such as HIPAS and Tromso) the background ionosphere is a dynamic entity. Even the location of the aurora and the electro jet are changing as a function of latitude, altitude, and local time. Moreover, the background E- and F-region ionosphere may not be laminar on scale sizes less than 20 km and less than 100 km, respectively. There is the possibility of E- and F- region irregularities (with scale sizes from cms to kms) occurring at various times due to (for example) electro jet driven instabilities in the E-region, and spread F or current driven instabilities in the F-region. High-energy particles, e.g., from solar flares, may also lead to D-region structuring. In addition, connection to the magnetosphere via the high conductivity along magnetic field lines can play an important role. The theoretical understanding of high latitude Ionospheric-heating processes has been improving; however, given the dynamic nature of the high latitude ionosphere, it is important to diagnose the background ionosphere before the inception of any heating experiments. This diagnostic capability aids in determining long-term statistics, as well as real-time parameters. Such diagnostics have been an integral part of the heating experiments at Arecibo and Tromso, HF heating experiments conducted by Gaiacomm researchers has demonstrated an understanding of the above-mentioned anomalies

4. Desired HF Heating/Antenna facility

In order to address the broad range of issues discussed in the previous sections, a new, unique, HF heating/antenna facility is required.

4.1. Heater Characteristics

The goals for the HF heater/antenna are very ambitious. In order to have a useful facility at various stages of its development, it is important that the heater/antenna be constructed in a modular manner, such that its effective- radiated-power can be increased in an efficient, cost effective manner as resources become available. Other desired HF heater characteristics are outlined below.

Effective-Radiated-Power (ERP)

One gigawatt of effective-radiated-power (90 dBW) represents an important threshold power level, over which significant wave generation and electron acceleration efficiencies can he achieved, and other significant heating effects can be expected. To date, the Soviet Union has built such a powerful HF heater/antenna. Gaiacomm plans to ultimately have a HF heater with an ERP well above one gigawatt (on the order of 95-100 dBW and more) In short, the most powerful facility in the world for conducting Ionospheric modification research and development. In achieving this, the heated area in the F-region should have a minimum diameter of at least 50 km, for diagnostic-measurement purposes.

4.1.2. Frequency Range of Operation

The desired heater/antenna would have a frequency range from around one teraHertz to about 29 teraHertz, thereby allowing a wide range of Ionospheric processes to be investigated. This incorporates the electron-gyro frequency and would permit operations under all anticipated Ionospheric conditions. Multi-frequency operation using different portions of the antenna array is also a desirable feature. Finally, frequency changing on an order of milliseconds is desirable over the bandwidth of the HF transmitting antenna.

4.1.3. Scanning Capabilities

A heater/antenna that has scanning capabilities is very desirable in order to enlarge the size of heated regions in the ionosphere. Although a scanning range from vertical to very oblique (about 10 degrees above the horizon) would be desirable, engineering considerations will most likely narrow the scanning range to about 45 degrees from the vertical. The capability of rapidly scanning (microseconds time scale) in any direction is also very desirable.

4.1.4. Modes of Operation

Flexibility in choosing heating modes of operation, including continuous- wave (CW) and pulsed modes, will allow a wider variety of Ionospheric modification techniques and issues to be addressed.

4.1.5. Wave polarization

The heater should permit both X and O polarizations to be transmitted, in order to study Ionospheric processes over a range of altitudes.

4.1.6. Agility in Changing Heater/Antenna Parameters

The ability to quickly change heater/antenna parameters, such as operating frequency, scan angle and direction, power levels, and modulation is important for addressing such issues as enlarging the size of the modified region in the ionosphere and the development of techniques to insure that the energy densities desired in the ionosphere can be delivered from the heater without self-limiting effects setting-in.

4.2. Heating Diagnostics

In order to understand natural Ionospheric processes as well as those induced through active modification of the ionosphere, adequate instrumentation is required to measure a wide range of Ionospheric parameters on the appropriate temporal and spatial scales.

4.2.1. Incoherent Scatter Radar Facility

A key diagnostic for these measurements will be an incoherent scatter radar facility to provide the means to monitor such background plasma conditions as electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, and electric fields (all as a function of altitude). In addition, the incoherent scatter radar will provide the means for closely examining the generation of plasma turbulence and the acceleration of electrons to high energies in the ionosphere by HF heating. Gaiacomm desires the incoherent scatter radar facility, envisioned to complement the planned new HF heater/antenna.

4.2.2. Other Diagnostics

The capability of conducting in site measurements of the heated region in the ionosphere, via rocket-borne instrumentation, is also very desirable. Other diagnostics to be employed, depending on the specific nature of the HF heating experiments, may include HF receivers for the detection of stimulated electromagnetic emissions from heater induced turbulence in the ionosphere; HF/VHF radars, to determine the amplitudes of short-scale (1-10 m) geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities; optical imagers, to determine the flux and energy spectrum of accelerated electrons and to provide a three-dimensional view of artificially produced airglow in the upper atmosphere: and, scintillation observations, to be used in assessing the impact of HF heating on satellite downlinks and in diagnosing large- scale Ionospheric structures.

4.2.3. Additional Diagnostics for ELF Generation Experiments

These could include a chain of ELF receivers to record signal strengths at various distances from the heater; a digital HF ionosonde, to determine background electron density profiles in the E- and F-regions; a magnetometer chain, to observe changes in the earth's magnetic field in order to determine large volume Ionospheric currents and electric fields; photometers, to aid in determining Ionospheric conductivities and observing precipitating particles; a VLF sounder, to determine changes in the D-region of the ionosphere; and, a Rio meter, to provide additional data in these regards, especially for disturbed Ionospheric conditions.

4.3. HF Heater/Antenna Location

One of the major issues to be addressed under the program is the generation of ELF waves in the ionosphere by HF heating. This requires locating the heater where there are strong atmospheric currents, either at an equatorial location or at a high latitude (auroral) location. Additional factors to be considered in locating the heater include other technical (research) needs and requirements, environmental issues, future expansion capabilities (real estate), infrastructure, and considerations of the availability and location of diagnostics. The location of the new HF heating facility is planned for Australia, relatively near to a new incoherent scatter facility designed by Gaiacomm.

In addition, it is desirable that the HF heater Antenna be located to permit rocket probe instrumentation to be flown into the heated region of the ionosphere.


1. Funding sources for Gaiacomm will come from the DOD and from carefully selected technology license agreements with various communication companies and companies that manufacture key communication devices.

Gaiacomm will approach the DOD for funding to redo the communication infrastructure for the submarine communications systems and the entire C 4 I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence operations.

Gaiacomm will not directly apply for grants or awards but through government there will be channels that will insure protected secrecy for this soon-to-be-classified project because of the nature of this project.

2. We will talk to introduce this new technology. International conventions will have to be attended later to formally introduce this new technology for adoption.

3.The military applications are separate from the commercial side and will remain under this protected cloak.

4. Commercially the system will most likely use modified communications hardware for proper transition and integration into the communications infrastructure but still at a level of 4G. Towers will be built worldwide with all support equipment to be used by the system. This system, when adopted, will eventually replace the current 3G systems planned and in place.

5. The area of coverage will be 196,950,000 square surface miles with each tower having a broadcast range of over 5 million square surface miles in a 360 degree footprint from subsurface to above 60 miles above the surface.

6. Digital devices from phones, PDA’s, computers and all wireless devices will have to be redesigned to accommodate this new architecture. This will of course spark manufacturing contracts to various companies worldwide and insight a new industrial revolution that will benefit all companies involved and increase employment and the bottom line of the GNP worldwide. It will require cooperation from all levels of governments and private enterprises.

7. The only risks will be the rejection of the technology from various heavily invested companies that would seem to take a loss in revenue from this new injection of high-grade technology. Various governments outside the US boarders that feel left out which can be overcome by collectively sharing this technology which reduces selective alienation from various sources.

8. The FCC and the ITU if approached correctly will assist in this monumental insurgence of technology improvements to the communications industry.

The upside is relying on government finance because of the military communication facelift that will occur once proof of concept and prototype is designed, built and demonstrated to the DOD and selective companies hand picked by the DOD.

9. In essence, Gaiacomm will design and develop the “Pipe” for the broadband information to travel through at rates 29 times faster than currently employed today.

10. The development of a prototype will take approximately 16 months after adequate investment is received. A fully functional system time frame will be contingent on the regulatory and governmental agencies that will eventually claim jurisdiction over this new 4G technology. This will determine the final deployment of the global communications system. Estimation based on experience and control is 8 years.

Patents will be filed if deemed necessary by the DOD.

11. Gaiacomm International Corporation would split in two divisions, one defense the other commercial. The benefit to investors is the fact that a return on the investment will not take years to redeem. The goal is to apply for public listing to allow companies and individuals to benefit by owning a piece of history.


Time division multiple access (TDMA) – Approach for allotting single-channel usage amongst many users, by dividing the channel into slots of time during which each user has access to the medium.
Synchronous code division multiple access (S-CDMA) – PN-code-based DS-SS technology where the multiple access codes are kept in clock synchronization to maintain mutual orthogonality. In some literature, it is called orthogonal CDMA.
Radio frequency (RF) – Region of spectrum or discipline of electrical design associated with high analog frequencies that require design considerations qualitatively different from traditional analog circuit design.
Multichannel multipoint distribution system (MMDS) – Wireless alternative to a cabled video system.
Low noise amplifier (LNA) – RF gain device designed specifically for very low imposition of additional noise power. Used to amplify very low signals without contributing significant SNR degradation.
Integrated services digital network. (ISDN)– The original very high-speed copper link for data transport. Still a viable high-speed solution, albeit less hype.
Intermediate frequency (IF) – The carrier center frequency that often follows a frequency conversion stage operating on an RF input. Chosen for ease of subsequent processing, functionality, and standardization.
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) – An approach to sharing a channel by separating the simultaneous users in frequency.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) – Use of digitized words processed by numerical calculations on a waveform sampled and encoded, using functions such as filtering, synchronization, and detection.
Digital-to-analog converter (D/A) – The reverse of A/D, it generates analog output signal from binary input words.
Code division multiple access (CDMA) – Spread spectrum technique using high-speed pseudorandom (PN) codes to scramble data words and spread spectral occupancy for added robustness.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) – A packet-switched network protocol, which uses a pre-established connection route.
Analog-to-digital converter or conversion. (A/D or ADC) – The process of sampling an analog waveform and describing it in terms of binary digits.
The only real high-speed service that matters right now comes courtesy of IEEE 802.11, the standard employed in wireless LANs (local area networks). The technology was originally developed for use within enterprises, but its new and rapidly expanding market is for mobile business environments.

Agencies, Regulatory, and Offices that oversee Communications Technology

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Department of Commerce
Defense Department (DoD)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Staff, US Air Force
Commander in Chief, US Atlantic Command
Commander in Chief, US Pacific Command
Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command
Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command
Commander in Chief, U.S. Special Operations Command
Commander, Submarine Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command
Secretary of the Navy
Secretary of Defense

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